Which of the following statements about small groups is true?

Learning Objectives

Define small team communication.Discuss the attributes of little teams.Exordinary the features of tiny teams.Compare and also comparison different types of tiny teams.Discuss advantages and disbenefits of little groups.

You watching: Which of the following statements about small groups is true?

Most of the communication abilities disputed in this book are directed towards dyadic interaction, interpretation that they are applied in two-perkid interactions. While many type of of these skills deserve to be transferred to and also used in tiny group contexts, the more complex nature of team interaction necessitates some adaptation and some extra skills. Small team communication refers to interactions among three or more world who are connected with a prevalent purpose, mutual affect, and a common identity. In this area, we will certainly learn around the features, functions, and also types of tiny groups.

Characteristics of Small Groups

Different groups have actually different qualities, serve different purposes, and can lead to positive, neutral, or negative experiences. While our interindividual relationships mostly focus on connection building, tiny teams generally focus on some type of job completion or goal accomplishment. A college discovering neighborhood focused on math and science, a campaign team for a state senator, and a team of neighborhood organic farmers are examples of little teams that would all have actually a various dimension, structure, identity, and also interactivity pattern.

Size of Small Groups

There is no set variety of members for the right little group. A small group calls for a minimum of three civilization (bereason two human being would certainly be a pair or dyad), but the upper selection of team size is contingent on the function of the group. When teams flourish beyond fifteenager to twenty members, it becomes difficult to take into consideration them a little group based on the previous definition. An evaluation of the variety of distinct relationships between members of small teams shows that they are deceptively facility. For instance, within a six-perkid team, there are fifteenager separate potential dyadic connections, and also a twelve-perkid group would have sixty-six potential dyadic relations (Hargie, 2011). As you have the right to see, when we double the number of team members, we more than double the variety of relations, which mirrors that network link points in small teams grow exponentially as membership boosts. So, while tright here is no set top limit on the variety of team members, it provides sense that the number of group members should be restricted to those important to accomplish the goal or serve the objective of the team. Small teams that add also many kind of members rise the potential for team members to feel overwhelmed or disassociated.

Structure of Small Groups

Internal and also outside impacts affect a group’s framework. In terms of internal impacts, member attributes play a role in initial group development. For instance, a perchild that is well indeveloped about the group’s task and/or highly urged as a team member may arise as a leader and collection right into motion internal decision-making processes, such as recruiting brand-new members or assigning team roles, that affect the structure of a team (Ellis & Fisher, 1994). Different members will certainly likewise gravitate towards different duties within the team and will advocate for certain procedures and courses of action over others. External determinants such as team size, job, and also resources additionally affect team framework. Some groups will certainly have even more control over these exterior determinants through decision making than others. For instance, a commission that is put together by a legislative body to look right into honest violations in athletic institutions will likely have much less regulate over its outside determinants than a self-created weekly book club.

A self-formed examine group likely has actually a more versatile structure than a city council committee.

Group structure is additionally formed via formal and informal netjob-related connections. In terms of formal netfunctions, groups might have actually plainly identified roles and also responsibilities or a pecking order that shows how members are associated. The group itself might additionally be a part of an organizational power structure that netfunctions the team into a bigger business structure. This kind of formal network is especially essential in teams that need to report to exterior stakeholders. These outside stakeholders may affect the group’s formal network, leaving the team little or no control over its framework. Conversely, groups have actually more manage over their informal networks, which are connections among people within the team and also among group members and civilization external of the group that aren’t official. For example, a group member’s friend or loved one might have the ability to secure a space to hold a fundraiser at a discounted price, which helps the team achieve its task. Both types of networks are vital because they may help facilitate indevelopment exadjust within a group and also extfinish a group’s reach in order to accessibility various other resources.

Size and structure also impact interaction within a team (Ellis & Fisher, 1994). In terms of size, the more people in a team, the even more concerns through scheduling and coordination of interaction. Remember that time is an important resource in the majority of group interactions and also a source that is typically strained. Structure can increase or decrease the flow of interaction. Reachcapacity refers to the way in which one member is or isn’t linked to other team members. For example, the “Circle” group framework in Figure 13.1 “Small Group Structures” reflects that each group member is associated to two various other members. This have the right to make coordicountry simple as soon as only one or 2 civilization should be carried in for a decision. In this instance, Erik and also Callie are exceptionally reachable by Winston, that might conveniently coordinate through them. However, if Winston necessary to coordinate via Bill or Stephanie, he would certainly need to wait on Erik or Callie to reach that person, which could create delays. The circle have the right to be a great framework for teams that are passing along a task and in which each member is intended to progressively build on the others’ work-related. A group of scholars coauthoring a study paper might occupational in such a manner, via each perchild adding to the paper and then passing it on to the following perboy in the circle. In this case, they have the right to ask the previous perkid concerns and also compose with the next person’s location of specialization in mind. The “Wheel” team structure in Figure 13.1 “Small Group Structures” mirrors an alternate organization pattern. In this framework, Tara is very reachable by all members of the group. This have the right to be a beneficial structure once Tara is the person through the the majority of field of expertise in the task or the leader who demands to review and provide occupational at each step before it is passed alengthy to various other group members. But Phillip and also Shadow, for example, wouldn’t most likely job-related together without Tara being affiliated.

Figure 13.1 Small Group Structures


Looking at the team structures, we can make some presumptions about the interaction that takes location in them. The wheel is an example of a centralized framework, while the circle is decentralized. Research has actually displayed that centralized groups are much better than decentralized groups in regards to speed and also performance (Ellis & Fisher, 1994). But decentralized groups are even more efficient at resolving facility troubles. In central teams prefer the wheel, the perkid via the the majority of relationships, perkid C, is additionally even more likely to be the leader of the group or at leastern have more condition among team members, greatly bereason that person has a large perspective of what’s going on in the group. The the majority of central perchild deserve to also act as a gatekeeper. Because this perboy has accessibility to the most indevelopment, which is generally a authorize of leadership or standing, he or she could consciously decide to limit the flow of indevelopment. But in facility tasks, that person can end up being overwhelmed by the burden of processing and also sharing indevelopment with all the other team members. The circle structure is even more most likely to arise in teams wright here participation is the goal and also a particular job and course of action isn’t forced under time constraints. While the perboy who initiated the group or has the many field of expertise in regards to the job might emerge as a leader in a decentral group, the equal access to information lessens the pecking order and also potential for gatekeeping that is current in the more central teams.


Small groups exhibit interdependence, definition they share a widespread objective and a prevalent fate. If the actions of one or 2 group members lead to a group deviating from or not achieving their objective, then all members of the team are affected. Conversely, if the actions of just a few of the team members cause success, then all members of the team benefit. This is a significant contributor to many type of college students’ dischoose of team assignments, because they feel a loss of regulate and independence that they have when they complete an assignment alone. This problem is valid in that their qualities might suffer because of the negative actions of someone else or their difficult occupational may go to benefit the team member that just skated by. Group meeting attendance is a clear example of the interdependent nature of team interactivity. Many type of of us have landed on a team meeting just to uncover fifty percent of the members existing. In some situations, the team members that display up have to leave and also reschedule because they can’t accomplish their task without the other members present. Group members that attfinish meetings however withattract or don’t participate deserve to likewise derail group development. Although it deserve to be frustrating to have actually your job, grade, or reputation partially dependent on the actions of others, the interdependent nature of groups can also result in higher-top quality performance and also output, particularly as soon as team members are accountable for their actions.

Shared Identity

The common identity of a group manifests in numerous methods. Groups may have actually official charters or mission and vision statements that lay out the identification of a team. For instance, the Girl Scout mission says that “Girl Scouting builds girls of courage, confidence, and character, who make the people a far better place” (Girl Scouts, 2012). The mission for this large organization impacts the identities of the countless small groups dubbed troops. Group identification is frequently developed about a common goal and/or previous accomplishments, which adds dynamism to the team as it looks towards the future and also back on the previous to inform its existing. Shared identification can likewise be exhibited with team names, slogans, songs, handshakes, clothes, or various other symbols. At a family members reunion, for example, equivalent t-shirts specially created the occasion, dishes made from recipes passed dvery own from generation to generation, and also common stories of family members members that have actually passed away assist establish a mutual identification and also social fact.

A key facet of the development of a shared identification within a group is the establishment of the in-group as opposed to the out-group. The level to which members share in the in-group identity varies from perboy to perkid and team to team. Even within a family members, some members may not attfinish a reunion or acquire as excited around the matching t-shirts as others. Shared identification likewise emerges as teams become cohesive, interpretation they recognize with and favor the group’s task and also various other group members. The visibility of cohesion and a shared identity leads to a building of trust, which can also positively influence productivity and members’ satisfaction.

Functions of Small Groups

Why carry out we sign up with groups? Even through the challenges of team membership that we have all faced, we still look for out and also desire to be a component of numerous groups. In some situations, we sign up with a group because we require a service or accessibility to indevelopment. We might additionally be drawn to a group because we admire the group or its members. Whether we are aware of it or not, our identities and self-principles are developed on the teams with which we recognize. So, to answer the earlier question, we sign up with teams because they function to assist us satisfy important, interpersonal, and identification needs.

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Groups Meet Instrupsychological Needs

Groups have lengthy offered the critical needs of humans, helping via the most basic aspects of survival considering that ancient humans first progressed. Groups aided humans survive by providing protection and also protection with increased numbers and also access to sources. Today, teams are seldom such a matter of life and death, yet they still serve important crucial features. Labor unions, for example, pool efforts and resources to attain product security in the develop of pay rises and health and wellness benefits for their members, which protects them by offering a secure and trusted livelihood. Individual group members should additionally work-related to secure the important requirements of the team, developing a reciprocal partnership. Members of labor unions pay dues that assist support the group’s initiatives. Some teams likewise meet our informational demands. Although they may not provide product resources, they enrich our knowledge or carry out information that we deserve to usage to then satisfy our very own crucial demands. Many type of teams administer referrals to sources or offer advice. For instance, several consumer defense and advocacy groups have been developed to sell referrals for human being who have actually been the victim of fraudulent company practices. Whether a team forms to carry out solutions to members that they couldn’t gain otherwise, advocate for changes that will influence members’ resides, or provide information, many kind of groups fulfill some kind of instrumental need.

Groups Meet Interindividual Needs

Group membership meets interpersonal demands by offering us accessibility to inclusion, regulate, and assistance. In terms of inclusion, world have actually a basic drive to be a component of a group and to develop and maintain social bonds. As we’ve learned, human beings have actually constantly lived and operated in small teams. Family and friendship teams, shared-interemainder groups, and also task groups all provide us through a sense of belonging and also being included in an in-team. People likewise sign up with teams bereason they want to have actually some regulate over a decision-making process or to affect the outcome of a team. Being a component of a team enables civilization to share opinions and also affect others. Conversely, some human being sign up with a group to be controlled, bereason they don’t desire to be the sole decision maker or leader and also rather desire to be provided a duty to follow.

Just as we enter right into interindividual relationships because we like someone, we are drawn toward a group when we are attracted to it and/or its members. Groups also administer support for others in means that supplement the assistance that we obtain from substantial others in interpersonal relationships. Some teams, prefer treatment teams for survivors of sex-related attack or assistance groups for human being with cancer, exist generally to carry out emotional support. While these groups may also satisfy critical requirements with relationships and referrals to sources, they satisfy the interpersonal need for belonging that is a main human need.

Groups Meet Identity Needs

Our affiliations are building blocks for our identities, because team membership permits us to use referral teams for social comparison—in brief, identifying us via some teams and also qualities and separating us from others. Some world sign up with teams to be affiliated with world who share equivalent or preferable attributes in regards to ideas, mindsets, values, or social identities. For example, human being might join the National Organization for Womales bereason they desire to affiliate through others that support women’s civil sarkariresultonline.infoerties or a regional chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) because they desire to affiliate via African Americans, human being involved with civil civil sarkariresultonline.infoerties, or a mix of the 2. Group memberships differ in terms of just how a lot they impact our identification, as some are even more prominent than others at assorted times in our resides. While spiritual teams all at once are too big to be considered small teams, the occupational that people do as a component of a religious community—as a lay leader, deacon, member of a prayer group, or committee—might have deep ties to a person’s identity.

Group membership helps meet our interindividual needs by giving an opportunity for affection and inclusion.

The prestige of a group can initially entice us bereason we want that group’s identification to “rub off” on our very own identification. Likewise, the achievements we make as a team member deserve to boost our self-esteem, add to our reputation, and also enable us to produce or task certain identity attributes to connect in impression administration. For example, a person may take plenty of tests to become a component of Mensa, which is an company for people with high IQs, for no product obtain but for the acknowledgment or feeling of achievement that the affiliation may carry. Likewise, civilization may join sporting activities teams, skilled institutions, and honor societies for the feeling of achievement and affiliation. Such teams permit us methods to much better ourselves by encouraging further advancement of skills or knowledge. For example, a perkid that provided to play the oboe in high institution might sign up with the area band also to continue to improve on his or her capability.

Types of Small Groups

Tbelow are many type of forms of tiny teams, yet the a lot of common difference made between types of little teams is that of task-oriented and relational-oriented groups (Hargie, 2011). Task-oriented groups are developed to settle a difficulty, promote a reason, or geneprice concepts or indevelopment (McKay, Davis, & Fanning, 1995). In such groups, favor a committee or research team, interactions and decisions are generally evaluated based on the high quality of the last product or output. The three major kinds of work are production, conversation, and problem-resolving tasks (Ellis & Fisher, 1994). Groups faced through production jobs are asked to produce somepoint tangible from their team interactions such as a report, design for a playground, musical performance, or fundraiser event. Groups confronted via conversation jobs are asked to talk through something without trying to come up with a appropriate or wrong answer. Examples of this type of group include a assistance group for people with HIV/AIDS, a book club, or a group for new fathers. Groups challenged through problem-resolving jobs have to devise a course of activity to accomplish a details need. These groups likewise normally incorporate a manufacturing and also discussion component, but the end goal isn’t necessarily a tangible product or a common social reality with conversation. Instead, the end goal is a well-thought-out concept. Task-oriented groups call for honed problem-fixing skills to accomplish goals, and also the framework of these groups is more rigid than that of relational-oriented groups.

Relational-oriented teams are developed to promote interpersonal relations and are even more focused on top quality interactions that add to the well-being of group members. Decision making is directed at strengthening or repairing relationships fairly than completing discrete tasks or debating particular principles or courses of action. All teams incorporate job and also relational aspects, so it’s best to think of these orientations as two ends of a continuum fairly than as mutually exclusive. For instance, although a family unit functions together everyday to achieve jobs choose getting the children ready for institution and also friendship teams may plan a surpincrease party for among the members, their primary and the majority of systematic interactions are still relational. Due to the fact that other chapters in this book emphasis especially on interpersonal relationships, this chapter focuses even more on task-oriented teams and the dynamics that run within these teams.

To more particularly look at the kinds of little groups that exist, we have the right to study why groups create. Some groups are created based on interindividual relationships. Our household and friends are considered main teams, or long-lasting groups that are created based on relationships and also incorporate considerable others. These are the little teams in which we connect many commonly. They create the basis of our society and our individual social realities. Kinship networks provide important support at an early stage in life and meet physiological and safety needs, which are important for survival. They additionally satisfy higher-order needs such as social and self-esteem requirements. When civilization execute not communicate via their biological family members, whether voluntarily or involuntarily, they can establish fictive kinship netfunctions, which are written of people who are not biologically connected but satisfy family members roles and also help carry out the exact same support.

We likewise connect in many additional teams, which are identified by much less regular face-to-challenge interactions, much less emotional and also relational interaction, and more task-associated interaction than primary teams (Barker, 1991). While we are more most likely to take part in secondary teams based on self-interemainder, our primary-group interactions are often even more reciprocal or various other oriented. For example, we may join teams bereason of a mutual interest or require.

Groups formed based upon mutual interest include social groups and also leisure groups such as a team of independent film buffs, scientific research fiction fans, or bird watchers. Some teams form to satisfy the needs of individuals or of a details team of human being. Instances of teams that satisfy the needs of people include study groups or assistance groups favor a weight loss team. These teams are concentrated on individual requirements, even though they accomplish as a group, and they are additionally frequently discussion oriented. Service groups, on the various other hand, job-related to satisfy the needs of people yet are job oriented. Service teams encompass Habitat for Humanity and Rotary Club chapters, among others. Still other teams form approximately a common need, and their primary job is advocacy. For instance, the Gay Men’s Health Dilemma is a group that was developed by a tiny team of eight world in the at an early stage 1980s to advocate for sources and also support for the still fairly unwell-known disease that would certainly later on be known as AIDS. Similar groups form to advocate for everything from a stop authorize at a community interarea to the end of humale trafficking.

As we currently learned, various other teams are formed generally to accomplish a task. Teams are task-oriented teams in which members are especially loyal and dedicated to the job and other group members (Larkid & LaFasto, 1989). In expert and also civic conmessages, the word team has actually end up being popularized as a means of drawing on the positive connotations of the term—connotations such as “high-spirited,” “participating,” and also “hardfunctioning.” Scholars that have actually invested years examining highly effective groups have identified a number of common components pertained to their success. Successful groups have actually (Adler & Elmhorst, 2005)

clear and motivating mutual purposes,a results-driven framework,experienced team members,a collaborative climate,high criteria for performance,external support and acknowledgment, andhonest and accountable management.

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Increasingly, small teams and also groups are engaging in even more online interactivity. Virtual groups take advantage of new innovations and accomplish exclusively or generally online to attain their objective or goal. Some online teams may complete their job without ever being physically face-to-challenge. Virtual groups bring through them unique advantages and also disadvantages that you have the right to check out more about in the “Getting Plugged In” feature next.