Which of the following is not true of dialects?

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College Levels

Major Regional Dialect Areas

Curricular Unit Menu

Overview

Most Americans are well aware that English sounds various indifferent components of the nation. They might assert that human being in otherareas stop through a drawl or a twang or that they sound nasal. In somelocations, world are sassist to speak fast; in others, gradually. The existenceof neighborhood speech differences is indisputable, but the differenceshave added to extensively hosted stereotypes:for circumstances, that Southerners are friendly,although probably not as intelligent as Northerners, yet Northerners arerude. Why execute these stereoforms persist despite evidence that they areinaccurate? Why are tbelow so many kind of neighborhood varieties in the U.S.? Thisunit examines some of the major neighborhood dialects in the UNITED STATE, thehistorical factors for their presence, and also some explacountries for theirpersistence. Dialects examined incorporate Eastern New England also,Pennsylvania, Midland also, Southern, and also Western.

You watching: Which of the following is not true of dialects?

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Key Ideas

Regional dialects are the result of numerous factors, includingtrends of negotiation, subsequent migration, and isolation. Tbelow are higher differences in dialects from North to Souththan from East to West. No region of the U.S. is without a dialect. Eincredibly speaker ofEnglish uses a dialect. Perceptions about the language of a region and perceptions of theworld that live tright here reinpressure each various other. Regional dialects are not homogeneous. There are manysub-dialects in each local language location.

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Key Terms

Also

Folk linguistics: General perceptions and attitudes aboutlanguage

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Student Objectives

Students will:

Examine variation in English as it relates to geographical regions. Recognize some of the major differences between local dialects. Understand that everyone speaks a language. Trace historic events that have shaped the existing majorneighborhood dialects. Discuss current language adjust in regards to convergence anddivergence of the significant neighborhood dialects.

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Using the Unit

Keep in mind that the term language is provided right here in thescientific, not the famous sense.The scientific interpretation is this:Adialect is a variety of a language spoken by members of a particularteam. The term does not contain any type of positive or negativeconnotations. Assistance students check out that everyone speaks a language. They might thinkthat there is a single correct way to pronounce a word, for instance,as soon as in fact various dialects may pronounce the word in different ways.Even dictionaries, which are frequently related to as representingcorrectness, offer some pronunciations that differ regionally. Stereokinds about the civilization and the language of different partsof the nation are widespreview. It is useful to have students continueto think and also talk around the perceptions and also perspectives held by andtoward different teams and to seek indevelopment that sheds light on thesoundness of such attitudes and also perceptions.

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Video Sections Used in this Unit

Do YouSoptimal American? isaccessible on both DVD and typical videotape. Guides foraccessingspecific sections of the video have been formatted as follows:

Description/Episode DVDSection VT Time Code RunningTime

HipHop (DYSA/1) 1.11 <01:50:16> (4:06)For more information on accessing the video click below.

In this unit:Pronunciation in Maine (DYSA/1) 1.2a<01:03:02> (2:36)Dialect Area/ “cah” (DYSA/1) 1.2b<01:05:38> (1:27)

Language Attitudes/DennisPreston on theTrain (DYSA/1) 1.6a <01:24:15> (3:19)Preston on Train Aget (DYSA/1) 1.6c <01:30:19> (1:03)Language Change (DYSA/1)1.8 <01:36:22> (2:20) Appalachian English (DYSA/2) 2.2 <01:01:35> (7:27)Country music/Cody James (DYSA/2) 2.3b <01:10:32> (1:40) Rful Southern is Growing/JohnFought (DYSA/2) 2.3c<01:12:12> (1:15) CultivatedSouthern/Eudora Welty(DYSA/2) 2.3d <01:13:28> (1:37)Jeff Foxworthy (DYSA/2) 2.3e <01:15:04>(1:53)Texas Legislature/Molly Ivins* (DYSA/2) 2.8a <01:40:05> (2:23) Teens and Slang (DYSA/3) 3.4c <01:19:46>(2:37) Valleygirl and also Surferdude(DYSA/3) 3.5 <01:22:23> (7:36) *Material may not be suitable for all audiences. Teachers shouldpreview these sections prior to utilizing them in class.Total time of video segments:(37:13)

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Description of Video Segments

Pronunciation in Maine (DYSA/1) 1.2a <01:03:02> (2:36)starts through an intercheck out with a lobsterman,John Coffin, that explains exactly how lobsters—and the people that make aliving fishing them—are declining in number. As this standard way oflife dies out, Coffin fears some attributes of the distinctivelocal dialect (the Eastern New England dialect) will certainly go through them.

Dialect Area/ “cah”(DYSA/1) 1.2b <01:05:38>(1:27)showsRobert MacNeil driving southfrom Maine. Outside Boston, MacNeil meets Massachusetts indigenous PamHead, that recounts a humorous story about as soon as she lived in Oklahomaand also essential to buy a auto. People didn’t understand also her once she said,“cah.”Language Attitudes/DennisPreston on theTrain (DYSA/1) 1.6a <01:24:15> (3:19)Preston on Train Aobtain (DYSA/1) 1.6c <01:30:19> (1:03)introduces DennisPreston, a linguist who studiesAmericans’ perceptions and also mindsets around English, referred to as people linguistics He asksworld riding a train to mark locations on a map where they think Englishis spoken most appropriately and many erroneously. As the film defines,the Midlandarea is largely seen asthe a lot of correct location, often cited as the place where people have actually nodialect at all (although this is a myth). New York City and the Southare mostly viewed as the least correct locations. However, notions ofcorrectness carry out not necessarily correspond to perceptions of euphony,and some train riders say that they gain hearing Southerners soptimal.

Language Change (DYSA/1) 1.8 <01:36:22> (2:20) introduces linguistWilliamLabov. He explains a transition thatis presently going on in the vowel pronunciations of civilization in citiesalengthy the Great Lakes (Buffalo, Cleveland, Detroit, Chicback, etc.).This Northern Cities Shiftis makingthe Northern language even more distinctive.

Appalachian English(DYSA/2) 2.2 <01:01:35> (7:27)finds MacNeil traveling alengthy theOhio River through linguist Walt Wolfram. The Ohio River is traditionallyviewed as the boundary in between Midland also and Southern dialect regions.MacNeil and Dr. Wolfram dock at Rabbit Hash, Kentucky, to sample someAppalachianEnglish, among thevarieties that makes up Southern English.

Country music/Cody James(DYSA/2) 2.3b<01:10:32> (1:40) has MacNeil continuingsouth to Nashville, Tennessee, wbelow he speaks via country musicsinger Cody James about “talkin’ country” ¾ one more language ofSouthern English. Although James is not a native Southerner, heincorporates Southern language attributes right into his singing and speech.

RfulSouthern is Growing/JohnFought (DYSA/2) 2.3c<01:12:12> (1:15) introduces linguistJohn Fought. Fought explains that the Amerideserve to South is the fastestprospering region in the nation and now the most heavily populated dialect region.Of course, many type of of its residents are not initially from the South, andthis influx of human being from various other locations, occasionally dubbed linguisticswamping,is having an influence on the typical Southern means of speaking.

CultivatedSouthern/Eudora Welty(DYSA/2) 2.3d <01:13:28> (1:37)illustrates theadjust in the traditionalSouthernlanguage. MacNeil goes to Oxford, Mississippi, wright here he listens to arecording of Eudora Welty reading a passage from her story, “TheOptimist’s Daughter.” Welty’s speech patterns are plainly differentfrom those of other Southern speakers heard in the video. One of hercharacteristic features is dropping of the “r” sound in words prefer forcedand also began. ThistraditionalSouthern attribute has largely disshowed up from Southern dialects.

Jeff Foxworthy (DYSA/2) 2.3e <01:15:04>(1:53)introduces standup comedianJeff Foxworthy, that bases a big part of his act on stereokinds ofSouthern English and also the people that sheight it. Foxworthy and MacNeiltalk about Americans’ perceptions about Southern English and also why thedialect persists despite negative perspectives that many type of human being havetoward it.

Texas Legislature/Molly Ivins*(DYSA/2) 2.8a <01:40:05> (2:23) is collection in Austin, Texas,wbelow MacNeil visits the state legislature to hear various kinds ofTexan talk.Texan isoccasionally believed of as a distinctive dialect, although linguistsgenerally classify it as part of the bigger Southern language.

Texas Legislature/Molly Ivins*(DYSA/2) 2.8a <01:40:05> (2:23) introduces politicalcommentator MollyIvins, a indigenous Texan, that defines Texas talk and also its inventivenessvia its words and also phrases.

Teens and Slang(DYSA/3) 3.4c <01:19:46>(2:37) examinesthe effect of movies on thespeech of The golden state teenagers. Part of the Western language, Californiaspeech has emerged as aninfluentialdialect, partly bereason movies and tv are created tbelow, butadditionally bereason California is envied for its active way of life. Californianyouth are regularly believed of as an essential resource of brand-new slang items.

Valleygirl and Surferdude(DYSA/3) 3.5 <01:22:23> (7:36) introduces Carmen Fought, alinguist who research studies dialects in The golden state. This section examines twoof these Western dialects: Valleygirl and also Surferdude. Fought explainssome of the pronunciations that typify these dialects, and GeorgePlomarity, a speaker of Surferdude, defines some the specializedjargon that surfers use and also how some of it has entered mainstreamAmerideserve to English.

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Background Information

Why are Tbelow Dialects?

Settlement and also migration are two major determinants that have shaped thelinguistic landscape of the UNITED STATE Different areas of America weresettled by different teams from the British Isles (and elsewhere), whocarried with them their unique means of speaking. A few of thesedifferences have actually been maintained and can be heard in the significant regionaldialects of the UNITED STATE Early negotiation occurred alengthy the East coast,from North to South, via people from different language locations ofBritain developing themselves in various locations. As inhabitants relocated furtherinland also, theytook theirdialects via them. Hence, dialect distinctions are higher fromNorth to South than from East to West. Once settlers passed theMississippi River and moved right into the Great Plains, travel was lessminimal by geographical barriers, which led to raised mixing ofdialects in the western part of the nation. The exploration of gold inThe golden state additionally contributed to this mixing, as human being from all over thecountry, through various speech fads, congregated there.

Also essential to the advancement and preservation of dialectaldifferences is isolation, whether geographical or social.Geographically isolated groups encompass those that have lived forgenerations on islands—choose natives of Martha’s Vineyard, MA, orOcracoke, NC—and those that are separated from the neighboring area bymountains—like Appalachian English speakers. All of these teams havearisen distinctive speech varieties—subdialects of the majorlocal dialects.

Social isolation is exemplified by nineteenth-century immigrantgroups, that often settled in their own urban communities and also livedand also functioned acomponent from other groups; although they were not separatedfrom the mainstream by hills, they were effectively reduced off from itsocially. To now, many kind of large cities have Italian, Chinese, German,Irish, Jewish, or Polish neighborhoods. Dialect distinctions (someequivalent to socio-financial differences) resulted fromdissimilarities in the English gained by these various ethnicteams. Something similar taken place via AfricanAmerideserve to English (AAE): Even after emancipation, many type of AfricanAmericans were socially isolated, and hence Afrideserve to Amerihave the right to English hasemerged as a unique language. A comparable process has actually given climb toChicano English, a dialectof English spoken by some world of Hispanic descent. Native Americans,as well, were forcibly isolated from other Americans, and some of them havearisen a distinct language of English (periodically in addition tokeeping their native languages). Social dialects such as AAE andChicano English cross-reduced the significant local dialects of America.

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Contact in between English and also other languages has added itsshare to the development of Amerideserve to dialects. In Louisiana, the contactbetween English and French produced distinct dialects of both of thoselanguages. In Hawaii, English encountered the Hawaiian language (aPolynesian language), and the contact gave climb to a Hawaiian varietyof English. In Alaska, English came right into call through even more than twentydifferent indigenous languages, and also linguists are currently researching theproperties of the selection of English spoken by Alaskan Natives.

Factors contributing to dialect preservation can be tough to pindown. Speaking a details dialect deserve to be a way of identifying via aarea or a way of life; the speech fads of groups or individualsare an essential component of their identification. For instance, in Appalachia,enhanced roadways have actually newly had a incredible affect on previouslyisolated areas. However, the distinctive speech forms of theregion have not been eradicated altogether, for pride in thetypical Appalachian way of living has actually motivated some human being todefend their means of speaking. On an individual level, selecting toretain or to modify a dialect gained in childhood is part of the wayone presents oneself: More on this topic shows up in the CommunicativeChoices & Linguistic Style unit.

Are Regional Dialects Homogeneous?

The boundaries between the major regional dialects tend tocorrespond to major geographical obstacles. For instance, the Ohio Riversepaprices the Midland Dialect from the Southern Dialect. Within thesignificant dialect regions are sub-neighborhood dialects. Although many kind of peoplerefer to them by state (e.g., Ohio language, Wisconsin dialect), theirlimits hardly ever correspond to political borders. As an instance ofsub-dialects, take into consideration the myriad arrays of Southern. These includeAppalachian English; the speech of Tory cities such as Savannah andCharleston; the speech of the Mid-South (Virginia, North Carolina); thespeech of the Deep South (Alabama, Mississippi); the speech of Texas;the speech of the Hoi Toiders of the Outer Banks; the French-influencedEnglish heard in Louisiana; the speech of the Bluegrass region(Kentucky), and so forth. These dialects—prefer all dialects—have changedover time and proceed to adjust, but all reprimary distinctly differentfrom each other. Although tv might present and also spread new wordsand also phrases, it is not causing neighborhood dialects to die out.

In no neighborhood dialect area, then, execute people all speak the same means.In addition, within geographical areas, social groups distinguishthemselves via speech. Language can vary according to course,ethnicity, occupation, or gender; it can vary bereason of isolation orcontact; it deserve to differ because civilization are individuals and language ispart of their individuality.

What Differentiates Regional Dialects?

One difference among local dialects is vocabulary: pop vs.soda, pail vs. bucket, lightning bug vs.firefly. Even the second perkid plural pronoun deserve to vary: you,y’all, you men, yousage males, you’uns, or yinz.Linguistics maps such as those in the Thesaurus of American Regional English (DARE) identifymany type of regional vocabulary differences. DARE was compiled by analyzinginterviewscarried out in the late1960s through human being all over the country. (Since most of them wereelderly at the time, the indevelopment in DARE mirrors the speech ofpeople who learned English in the late 1nine century.)

Pronunciation, too, differs from area to region. DARE containsindevelopment about pronunciation distinctions, as does the TelsurProject. For circumstances, in the Midland and also Western dialectregions—butnot elsewhere—words prefer recorded and cot are pronouncedthe same. In the Southern dialect region—however not elsewhere—words prefer pinand pen are pronounced the very same. As described over, apronunciation shift is now in progression in the Northern dialectregion—the Northern CitiesShift.Students deserve to hear human being from other locations soptimal, by listening to radiobroadcasts from eexceptionally state utilizing the Do You Stop American? VirtualRadio Dial.

Finally, there are grammatical differences in the speech of regionaldialects. For example, some Southerners usage two modal verbs—forinstance, I could could mow the lawn tomorrow, which meanssomepoint favor, “It’s feasible that I’ll mow the lawn yet I’m notcommitting to it.” In components of Pennsylvania, civilization frequently say thevehicle needs washed instead of the car needs washing or theautomobile demands to be washed.

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Discussion Questions

Pronunciation in New England also (DYSA/1)

1. Lobsterman/Pronunciationin Maine : MacNeil states,“Mainers are afraid that theirdialect . . . is coming to the finish of the road.” How can a decrease ina method of life be related to a decline in a method of speaking? Does onecause the various other or do they just coincide? Can tright here be one without theother?

2 . Buying a car:Pam Head, the Massachusetts aboriginal,tells a story of living in Oklahoma, wright here civilization did not understandher pronunciation of the word car as “cah.” If Head hadstayed in Oklahoma, execute you think she would have actually ongoing to usage herMassachusetts pronunciation? If you have ever before relocated from one dialectregion to one more, did you notice yourself altering your pronunciation?If so, why? In order to be understood? In order to fit in? For somevarious other reason? Have you ever before noticed other world changing theirpronunciation? Which is harder, adopting brand-new and stvariety vocabularyitems or editing and enhancing pronunciation? What are the benefits anddisbenefits of trying to adopt a various neighborhood dialect?

Language Attitudes/DennisPreston on the train (DYSA/1)

3a. Dennis Preston: MacNeilstates, “Americans are ambivalent aboutlanguage. They might think that New York and also Southern accents are badEnglish but they can also discover them charming.” Do you agree thatAmericans are ambivalent about language? Do you share the sorts offeelings MacNeil describes? Do you consider your own range of Englishto be prestigious or stigmatized?

3b . Dennis Preston: DennisPreston research studies Americans’ perceptionsand also perspectives around English, called folk grammars. Do youthink about speakers of some varieties to sound “even more educated,” “morefriendly,” “even more intelligent,” or “more cheerful”? If so, why carry out youthink that is? Are your impressions comparable to your classmates’?

Language Change (DYSA/1)

4. Language Change :Compare the ways in which linguist WilliamLabov (speaking around the Northern dialect) and the lobsterman(speaking around Maine) check out language readjust. What experiences execute theyusage to talk around language change? Are their views positive, negative,or neutral? What aspects of language does each perchild highlight intalking around language change?

Appalachian English (DYSA/2)

5. North/South division :MacNeil clintends, “the greatest divisionAmerica ever competent was in between North and also South, and that is stillreflected in our language.” Do you agree? How perform North/Southdifferences compare to East/West differences? What is the relationshipin between historical migration, modern migration, and also language?

6. Celebrating dialectdiversity: Linguist Walt Wolframsays, “We’re coming to celebrate and also acknowledge some of the dialectdifferences as part of our organic cultural heritage.” He believes thatwe must celebrate language variety rather of trying to eradicateit. In what means can we celebprice language array differences? Whatranges of English execute civilization tend to celebrate? Are tright here anyvarieties that human being still typically execute not celebrate?

Sounding Country/Southern English (DYSA/2)

7. Country music :Cody James, a singer from Oregon, saysthat nation music doesn’t necessarily need to be sung via a Southernaccent yet that it appears best to perform so. What language arrays seemright for singing the following: jazz, pop, hefty steel, hip-hop. Why?What would it be prefer if the voice didn’t enhance the style of themusic—for example, what would it sound like if Cody James sang with aNew York accent? Are tbelow various other tasks besides singing that invitea particular accent or other functions of a dialect?

8. Language prejudices :In the story about Eudora Weltythat MacNeil recounts, Welty claims that as soon as she was at ColumbiaUniversity in New York, she was never before provided tickets to cultural eventsbereason people taken her way of speaking as proof that shewould certainly not be interested in cultural tasks. When you hear someonespeak, what judgments carry out you feel confident around making? Do you thinkyou can judge people’s interests from the way they sound? Whatassumptions perform you think world make around you based upon the way youspeak? What type of relationships in between speech and other features aremost valid, and also which are least valid?

10. Jeff Foxworthy:Foxworthy makes a joke around not wanting yourbrain surgeon to have a Southern accent. What accent would certainly you likeyour brain surgeon to have? What about a auto mechanic or a computerrepairperson? How are assumptions around regional dialects made and also whyare they maintained? How can misleading ones be modified?

Language & Politics/Texastalk (DYSA/2)

11. Molly Ivins: MollyIvins explains Texas and Texans as “justlike the rest of the country except even more so. Everything isslightly exaggerated.” How would certainly you define your language variety toMolly Ivins?

Teens and also Slang (DYSA/3)

12. Slang: Slangwords are provided on informal occasions inplace words that would certainly be correct in a broader variety ofsituations—for circumstances, “dude” rather of “man.” Slang terms tend tobe short-lived, although some endure and also some ultimately lose theirslang connotations. Do you think that many slang originates in aspecific region? Where? Of the examples of slang vocabulary discussed inthe video, are these words used wbelow you live? Where you go to school?How carry out you think slang travels from area to region? Can one’s slangmark one’s language background? How difficult is it to embrace new slang wordsas compared to other new vocabulary? Can you think of words that areperiodically shelp to be slang yet that execute not fit the meaning of slangoffered here?

Valleygirl and also Surferdude (DYSA/3)

12b. Identify fourslang terms from MacNeil’s conversationthrough the adolescents in Irvine. Are these terms provided in your area? Do youthink they ever before will be? Do your parents or your professors understandthese terms? Have they ever before supplied them? Do you think they ever before will?

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Student Activities / Assessments

1. Any of the discussion questions over could be offered as ajournal writing prompt, a portfolio writing assignment, or anotherbasic creating assignment.

2. Folk grammars assignment : Publish a copy of aUnited States map by clickingbelow (PDF). Draw divisionsof wright here you think neighborhood ranges of English are spoken, and also labelthem (“California English,” “Southern English,” and so on.)Compare your mapping through the maps of others. Additionally, askfriends or familymembers to fill out the maps, and comment on your findings via classmates.

3. Fun quiz : Listen to the voices in the Clopper &Pisoni quiz,“Wright here is this perboy from?” and also attempt to label the area that thevoices evoke. Discuss what you heard that led you to your decisions.

4. Fun quiz : See what language terms you can figure out byusing theDARE equivalent quizzes/exercises Conversely, consultDARE and/or other resources to try to number out the correct matches.

5. Slang: Reresearch sections 3.4 and also 3.5 of the film(section 3.6 offers more examples) and classify terms used tright here asslang, or research a passage from a current magazine (sporting activities, style,music, etc.) and note usperiods that you take into consideration to be slang. Get peopleof various eras to specify the terms. Who offers them? Who knows what theymean? What is achieved by making use of these terms rather than analternative?

6. Read (and also respond) assignment : Read the essays by Bailey& Tillery “LoneStar Language”;“Soundsof the South”;Ekert & Mendoza-Denton “GettingReal in theGolden State”; Gordon “Changingsounds of American English”; “Land Withoutan Accent”; Mallinboy, et al, “SmokyMountain Speech” and current overviews tothe class.

7. Research and also reflect : Keep a list of putative slangterms that you usage or hear during a day or a week. Keep track of whereyou hear a term (school, athletic occasion, house, television, and so on.) andwho provides it. Write or talk about your findings: What terms were used mosttypically, wright here, and by what teams (e.g., gender, age, groupaffiliation)? What carry out the patterns of consumption suggest? Come up through aworking interpretation of slang. Is it valuable to distinguish slang fromstandard casual usage?

8. Research assignment : Select a vocabulary orpronunciation item that shows regional variation. Consult DARE andvarious other resources to view wbelow the various terms or pronunciations comefrom and also wbelow variations happen.

9. Research assignment: Select one regional dialect, findbetter indevelopment around its sounds, vocabulary, and grammar, andexisting this information to the class.

10. Literary-based assignment: Examine neighborhood dialects inliterary works. Authors you can think about incorporate Charles Chesnutt,Stephen Crane, Bret Hart, Sarah Orne Jewett, Jack London, and also LeeSmith. Focus on which dialects are spoken by various characters and also whyauthors provided those voices to those characters.

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Resources

Web:

Harvard dialect survey

Print:

Carver, C. American local dialects: A word location.AnnArbor: College of Michigan Press, 1987. This occupational uses the a lot of finish conversation easily accessible ofvocabulary distinctions among the significant neighborhood dialects of AmericanEnglish. Farr, M. Ethnoetymological Chicago: Language and also Literacy inCity’s Neighborhoods. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,2004. This book, composed for linguists, investigates languagepatterning in the multiethnic city of Chicearlier. It examines language asit relates to course, ethnicity, gender and also community. Niedzielski, N. A., and D.R. Preston. Folk Linguistics.Berlin/New York: Wtransform de Gruyter, 2003. Intended for a college-level audience, this book offers athorough overwatch of the perceptions and attitudes that non-linguisticshave about language. Much of the book is accessible to readers that donot have a background in grammars. Wolfram, W., and N. Schilling-Estes, N. Amerihave the right to English:Dialects and also variation. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 1998. Intfinished for readers via little or no background in linguisticscience, this college-level textbook has a chapter on AAE as wellas chapters on the range of neighborhood, social and ethnic variation inAmerican English; language and gender; style shifting; the background ofEnglish in America; and the basic nature of language variation.VideoKey:

DVD Episode & Chapters: For DVD users, DYSAhas actually been broken dvery own intoepisodes and chapters. (The term chapter is industry conventional forsections or "breaks" programmed into the DVD video. A number indicatingthe DYSA episodewill certainly constantly be followed by a number indicating the DVD chapter withinan episode. (i.e. 1.2 isEpisode 1, Chapter 2. The numbers 1.2 appear on-screen for DVD users.)DVD individuals might watch a DYSA episode right with oralternatively, jump to certain sections of the regimen byreferring to a major food selection accessible on the DVD.

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Chapter Description Chapter (or section) descriptions are available on-screenfor DVD individuals only, and also include a message description alengthy side theepisode number and the chapternumberwithin the episode (i.e. 1.2 Pronunciation in Maine). Videotape userswillhave to describe published versions of the curricular systems to benefitfrom the chapter descriptions.

Running Time The running time indicatesthe length of the section of video.

Videotape (VT) Time Code Videotape usersneed to rapid forward or rewind to the equivalent number presented inthevideotape respond to home window in the front of the videotape playearlier tool.(i.e. Videotape individuals need to insert thevideotape in the player and shuttle to <01:27:19> in the counter windowto seethe start of the Springville,Texas area.)