What has research found to be the primary difference between male and female leadership style?

Submitted: April 1fourth 2016Reviewed: September 14th 2016Published: February first 2017

DOI: 10.5772/65774

In this chapter, we aim to highlight the primary sex distinctions in terms of management, to carry out a vital comparative evaluation, to comment on potential barriers that have to be conquer, and to uncover some methods of raising business performance with a much better management style. The focus will not be placed on the sex differences by themselves yet on the means these differences have the right to positively influence the organizational performance. Our proposed chapter is mostly based on literary works evaluation as a methodology in its own best. Due to the fact that literary works testimonial has actually revealed rather many kind of divergent opinions, we additionally provided questionnaires and also interviews as information repertoire tools and we intend to present some of our results, without aiming to generalize all these outcomes to various societies. We cannot conclude that men’s management abilities are even more powerful and even more vital than women’s skills or vice versa, however it is clear that gender differences do exist and people should capitalize on them. We think about the word ‘complementary’ is better than the word ‘different’ when talking about management layouts and also that it is possible for leaders to develop a series of skills that are not necessarily traditionally connected to their very own gender.

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leadership stylesgendercommunicationmotivationfemininity versus masculinity

1. Introduction

Business ventures are currently dealing with all sorts of risks that seem to be endangering their exceptionally visibility. Tbelow are economic, political, social, ecological, technical, and also social difficulties that force stakeholders, investors, employees, and also state representatives to carefully analyse and job different strategic scenarios in order to sustain irreversible business expansion.

When looking at the specialized literature concerning the business setting, the analyses are being performed from various perspectives. Having shelp that, they perform converge toward a universally shared opinion, which is that management decisively impacts the day-to-day company tasks and their outcomes.

Therefore, it is apparent that tbelow should be a vested interemainder in finding the correct answers to inquiries that emphasis on a leader’s tasks, their competencies, style behaviour, and also personality, as many kind of of the already carried out research market handy results, whether they are congruent or complementary. A few of these research studies display that without a willingness to lead, without a commitment towards the company’s mission and vision, and also without integrity, the notion of authentic leadership sindicate does not exist in a service environment <1, 2>. That is why, as soon as choosing or preparing future leaders, tright here is a require to:Evaluate the people’s desire to lead and favour a self-reflection processthat will offer them answers to inquiries such as: what carry out you feel when others are interested in finding out your opinions? During a project, carry out you favor asking your teammates complex questions? Do you gain helping the members of your team complete their work on time and also in great conditions? How execute you worth individual interests versus the team’s ones? Can you allow an authentic team soul once functioning with various other people? Do you feel comfortable when other human being take your principles and put them right into practice? Do you gain helping others to improve their abilities and assuming a coaching/mentoring role? When individual disputes arise, would you quite kind them out within the team, or perform you let them continue? What are your feelings when noticing someone else being successful? Can you have actually a abundant discussion once the others are disagreeing with your opinion? Do you view your team’s troubles as your own? Do you reap generating concepts and also sharing them with your group?

Evaluate the leader’s commitment to the company’s mission and vision. It is tough to imagine exactly how you have the right to convince others to offer their finest when attempting somepoint that you, as the leader, don’t put a actual belief in. Certainly, through cautious observation, we can notification the fact that, not by accident, the initially firm leaders were actually the ones who created the company. The beginning leaders had a mission and also a vision about the purpose of their company, their customers, and also the transforms that they will certainly create in their belonging sector. They took threats and also made personal sacrifices prior to their company has actually end up being a successful one. They hired the first leaders from within the firm, trained and groomed them, taught them what to carry out and also exactly how to behave. These leaders, in turn, lugged on the same process until the humale hierarchies were created in order for the company to fulfil its mission and vision.

Evaluate integrity. That means that a leader’s actions should be in line through his/her words, he/she need to behave according to his/her team’s expectations, to be authentic and also expush the expectations he/she has from his/her colleagues and also teammates. Although that does not sound incredibly challenging, reality shows that these sorts of assures are not all that easy to save. In reality, it is quite complex for world to store their word and be an instance, specifically once under a good amount of stress and anxiety.

Over the past few years, tbelow have actually been rather the majority of cautious, varied researches about the management principle. Often, it is analysed alongside the sex features, which further reveal some exciting tendencies later of the company civilization.

As far as we are pertained to, in this existing chapter, we wanted to delve right into the potential relationship between gender and management style, while additionally trying to find a response to the adhering to question: ‘Are Men and also Womales Leading in the Same Way?’ We wanted to highlight the main gender distinctions, to administer a critical comparative analysis, to discuss potential obstacles that must be get rid of, and to uncover some means of boosting organizational performance through a much better management style.

Leadership is contextual, as people’s individual and also organizational features lead to certain perceptions and also behaviours. Because of this, we should not expect to find the ideal method of taking care of people. However before, we are interested in finding a series of elements that might result in a leader profile that is able to affect the company setting in a positive manner. Thus, the emphasis in this chapter will not be placed on the gender distinctions by themselves however on the methods these distinctions have the right to positively affect the business performance. Actually, among the major principles that have to be stressed appropriate from the start is that we agree with the viewpoint of existing two different management styles—masculine and also feminine—, however it is also essential to include that the distinctions are not an outcome of the sex by itself and also in reality describe human traits that are only traditionally attributed to guys and/or womales.

Our opinions take right into account not only many type of of the ideologies expressed in the specialized literary works but likewise the results of our very own study, which was performed over the previous 2 years, through a survey and also interviews with responsible components in the Romanian service atmosphere.


2. The evolution of women’s managerial careers

Before speaking about women’s leadership, we assumed it would be advantageous to analyse women’s partnership through their own career routes, as it was presented in several current research studies performed all over the world.

In the previous few years, womales have progressively expressed their desire to construct their careers, while the percent of working woguys has additionally increased. At the very same time, there have actually been favourable transforms through regard to their visibility in domains in which, till not lengthy back, woguys were accessing via difficulty.

A current survey performed by the ILO’s Bureau for Employers’ Activities (ACT/EMP) (2013) among about 1300 exclusive sector suppliers in 39 emerging countries proved the level to which the companies have actually plans and also procedures in location to promote women in management <3>. And these policies were not produced just as a result of a need for minimizing the problems created as a result of gender discrimination. They are, instead, based upon an enhancing and also incredibly crucial awareness that woguys have actually good outcomes in the establishments they lead. That defines the conclusion of a examine made by Catalyst (performed in 2008), according to which the portion of womales in managerial positions has actually seen a constant boost from 13.8% in 1950 to 26.1% in 1980 and also to even more than 50% nowadays <4, 5>.

Still, it need to be noted that, in fact, when womales are component of monitoring, they commonly find themselves in the middle of the pyramid and also rarely at the height <6>. They are understood for in the well-paid project sector and also it will take some time until this imbalance transforms. Additionally, tright here is still a considerable gap between guys and also womales income <7>. In addition, even if some authors advanced the idea that woguys and also males are equal from the allude of check out of education and learning in many kind of work areas <8>, US Bureau of Labor Statistics still mirrors that woguys achieve only 80% of men’s incomes <9>. This inequality affects womales at various expert levels. At a high level, women are less preferred for the managerial and also expert positions and also for the positions entailing decision-making concerning the policy of the agency <8, 10>.

On a global level, women’s involvement in the administration structures is displayed in Table1. The outcomes suggest that in simply four nations (Finland, Sweden, Norway and United Kingdom) women reexisting over 20% of board members; in 13 countries, between 10% and 20%; in 14nations, in between 5% and also 10%, and in 13 nations, >20%10–20%5–10%FinlandAustraliaBelgiumBahrainNorwayAustriaBrazilChileSwedenCanadaChinaIndiaUnited KingdomDenmarkGreeceJapanFranceMK ChinaKuwaitGermanyIndonesiaOmanIsraelIrelandPortugalNetherlandsItalyQatarPolandMalaysiaRep. of KoreaSouth AfricaMexicoRussiaTurkeyNew ZealandSaudi ArabiaSwitzerlandSingaporeTaiwanUSASpainUAEThailand




Increase in portion of graduates in design, manufacturing, and also constructions that are womales, selected nations, 2000–2012, International Labour Organization <3>.

As it can be checked out from Figure1, the positive evolution that has actually been taped over the previous few years in regards to an boosted involvement of womales in service and monitoring did not produce a perfect all at once balance. So, it is evident that we need to intend a consistent future acceleration of this phenomenon.

We have presented this situation not just in order to characterize a specific facet of the existing company environment however also to display that women’s visibility, scarce as it is, has actually enabled specialists to observe the way in which they behave in leadership functions, and also their competencies and potential in that kind of position. We did not mean to watch big percenteras of womales as leaders. We likewise think about that gender stereoforms are still part of global society and also are a large factor for this existing case because this results likewise from practice and other research studies <12>.

The feeling that we are unable to actively aid addressing this gender imbalance in management positions is definitely not an extremely comfortable one, which is why we believed it would certainly be beneficial to redistribute some opinions that validate the outcomes of women as leaders. In our opinion, it is fairly revealing that, according to many analyses, employees watch female leaders better than male ones in numerous qualities concerning transformational management (charisma, motivational skills, creativity, problem fixing, and numerous other essential abilities that show management efficiency) <13–15>. Additionally, Eagly has evidenced that, according to study, teams through a female leader are more willing to make an added effort, are more satisfied with their leader and their groups are in many type of cases even more effective when compared with groups with a male manager. All the indevelopment presently at our disposal about women’s ability to act as efficient leaders still does not answer this question: just how is tright here still so much information reflecting a severe discrepancy in between genders in regards to leadership, once woguys leaders are presently regarded much much better by the administration than they were formerly, probably even much better than their male counterparts? This paradox appears to be a reflection of our existing historical conmessage and proves that, despite the fact that the social functions of woguys are promptly transforming, there is still a conventional social expectation which continues to be the norm <14>.

5. In search of ‘The Best’ leadership

In the last year, our study has actually continued through studying the basic sex distinctions presented by Human being Synergistic International in Life Styles Inventory (LSI) <30>. First of all, we took right into account all the 12 formats, grouped into the 3 clusters:Constructive styles—Achievement, Self-Actualizing, Humanistic-Encouraging and also Affiliative

Passive/Defensive styles—Approval, Conventional, Dependent and Avoidance

Aggressive/Defensive styles—Oppositional, Power, Competitive, and Perfectionistic

Due to the fact that constructive layouts are the ones that are required for a real management potential, we will certainly attempt to give some referrals in order to enhance in each of us the layouts grouped in this cluster and to diminish the influences of the various other styles.

According to our research, woguys and also men have separation the 12 styles quite equally. Hence, in terms of constructive layouts, womales tfinish to be much better at Humanistic-Encouraging and Affiliative, whereas guys scored much better at Achievement and also Self-Actualizing. When being protective, tbelow are even more womales through passive layouts (Approval, Conventional, Dependent, and Avoidance) and also there are even more men via aggressive formats (Oppositional, Power, Competitive, and Perfectionistic). Of course, our study is contextual (Romania in 2015), yet we think at leastern partly, the results can be generalized, as they seem to be in line with the ideas pointed out in the previous sub-chapter.

5.2. Self-actualizing style

This is the style reflecting the highest level of individual advance and also mainly manifests through a great self-acceptance and also acceptance of others as they are. In this case, human being are incredibly prepopulated with self-advance and release of any type of negative feeling. They have actually even more power, think in their instincts, and also are open up to brand-new experiences. Self-actualizing leaders can view brand-new methods in eexceptionally instance and are even more functional.

In order to be more self-actualizing-oriented, human being must emphasis on:Living in present and reasoning much less about past and/or future

Reducing the temptation to judge others and also trying to constantly accept them as they are

Choosing to carry out pleasant points whenever it is feasible and rearranging the unpleasant ones in order to come to be much better activities

Looking at the troubles from multiple facets, in order to see the opportunities

Allowing their feelings and also thoughts to overview them even more in their lives.

While woguys primarily seemed to occupational even more in order to attain the benefits of a self-actualizing style, our study showed that this style was clearly even more attributed to men.

5.3. Humanistic-Encouraging style

This style also describes a positive unconditioned acceptance of others, but in one more way. People having this thinking style are very sensitive to the others’ requirements, value cshed relationships, and put a lot of of their energy into the others’ development. They appreciate sincecount people’s toughness and think in them. They are optimistic and also excellent at inspiring and also motivating the others, which makes them excellent leaders. They are patient and fertile.

In order to improve their Humanistic-Encouraging style, civilization have to work-related on the following:Developing their empathy and also learning to listen more

Asking for ideas and feedearlier from the others

Being more affiliated and spfinishing more time via various other people

Focutilizing on a few persons, encouraging them, and observing the role of this encouragement into their lives

Looking for opportunities to aid and also train others

Showing real appreciation for what the others do to you and possibly discovering to say ‘Thank you’ even more often

Being open about their feelings and also thoughts, in order to encourage the others to be open also.

According to our research, womales score mainly better for this style compared to men.

5.4. Affiliative style

The last, but not the leastern constructive style is the affiliative one. It refers to a genuine require for social interaction and also interindividual call. People having actually this thinking style worth solid relationships even more than anypoint else, work on emerging interindividual abilities, and also motivate others through a friendly perspective. They are preferred bereason they emphasis on collaboration and also building trust. By having a collaborative style, they are more productive.

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In order to boost their affiliative reasoning style, human being could carry out more of the following:Looking for opportunities to communicate through others and even forcing themselves to initiate talks through persons they perform not recognize very well

Attending courses and also occasions in order to meet brand-new people

Focutilizing on being extremely close via somebody, in order to build a trustful connection and also to communicate efficiently.

As intended, the results of our research showed that woguys are mostly more affiliative compared to males.

5.5. Approval style

This refers to a defensive method, based on the need to be accepted by others. While it is absolutely normal to desire to be apshowed, the tendency to understand this as a require inevitably leads to a series of difficulties concerned low self-esteem, also much attention to the others’ opinions, and also obstacles in conflictual situations and in negotiations. Affiliative managers are not good leaders bereason they tfinish to be undetermined, to postpone discussions, to prevent conflicts, and not to act immediately.

In order to mitigate the need for approval, civilization have to emphasis on:Being even more self-oriented and also expressing their own opinions

Practicing straight approach of confrontations

Reflecting on the require for approval and on its causes

Recognizing their strengths and the truth that they are practical persons for what they are and also not bereason the others choose them or approve them.

The results of our study verified that woguys tfinish to feel the need for approval more powerful than guys and also they have to job-related more on diminishing it.

5.6. Conventional style

Anvarious other protective and also potential dangerous method is the among acting just according to standards. It is perhaps dangerous because this means people risk shedding their uniqueness and also individuality. Conventional managers are not good leaders, because they favor the typical rules and procedures and primarily job-related in a very predictable atmosphere that hinders invention. The Rules are even more vital than ideas.

In order to come to be less traditional, world should job-related on the following:Understanding that being traditional primarily indicates fewer methods for development

Focmaking use of on their unique skills and strengths

Taking moderate threats, once it is the case

Trying brand-new ways of doing points, staying clear of routine.

According to our research, womales tfinish to be a small more conventional than males.

5.7. Dependent style

Dependent managers cannot lead bereason they quite tfinish to follow and to depfinish on the direction of the others. It is quite rare for them to disagree with them or to take a moderate hazard, as they are very sensitive to the others’ feelings and also reactions and also it is exceptionally tough to say ‘no’.

In order to become more independent, civilization should carry out the following:Learning something brand-new in order to end up being more achievement-oriented

Establishing little missions, as a series of little actions deserve to mean extremely much

Focmaking use of on making decisions independently

Trying to take efforts and also move towards the behaviour of a leader.

The results of our study confirmed that womales tfinish to be even more dependent than men and also thus they have to work more on the above suggestions.

5.8. Avoidance style

People having actually the avoidance thinking style need defense and also save distance from any type of potential danger. They are afraid of faiattract and tfinish not to take responsibility for their very own behaviour. It is tough for them to expush their feelings and also, in many instances, they focus on their weaknesses quite than on their staminas.

In order to end up being less avoidance-oriented, human being need to work-related on the following:Identifying the reasons of the avoidance behaviour

Focutilizing not just on their feelings yet likewise on the relationships with the others

Developing self-trust

Trying to tell the others what they feel and having this, at least for a duration, as an objective by itself.

In our research, we found that woguys tfinish to have actually higher avoidance scores than guys.

5.9. Oppositional style

This is an aggressive reasoning style that mirrors a tendency to be in disagreement through the others. People having actually high scores for this style frequently appear to be distant and seem to look for the others’ mistakes. They have an unfavorable mindset and their humour is sarcastic. This approach is a result of their belief that their principles are much better than the others’ principles. While the oppositional style is not a constructive one, the score must not be incredibly low either, bereason in that situation the others would certainly perceive them as naïve and also maybe also flexible persons.

In order to decrease their oppositional style, world have to emphasis on:Understanding that world would admire them even more if not being so oppositional

Not rejecting principles only bereason they are not theirs

Pincreasing the others even more often and preventing the temptation to slam.

As supposed, the results of our research study have actually displayed an boosted oppositional style in men when compared to womales.

5.10. Power style

The power thinking style actions our tendency to associate our self-acknowledgment with the degree in which we have the right to conquer and also control the others. People having actually this style are encouraged by the require for prestige, status, and also affect.

In order to decrease their choice towards power, human being must emphasis on the following:Trying a more friendly approach and also looking at the others’ reactions

Trusting the others and delegating more

Learning to be a mentor for the others

Being mindful that the require for power actually suggests a fear

Obtaining feedearlier about their behaviour from neutral sources.

According to our study, as intended, guys manifest the require for power substantially more than women perform.

5.11. Competitive style

This style shows the require for constantly comparing with others and also obtaining self-recognition via competition. While this is traditionally associated through the idea of success, it was proven that people should quite emphasis on performance, excellence, on the process by itself, and not on the outcome of winning in order to really become effective. Actually, people scoring high at competitive style are very aggressive and have a big fear of faientice. Competitive supervisors are prelived in with the means they are perceived by the others and also emphasis more on being the winners than on performance.

In order to lead even more properly, world must decrease their competitive orientation, and they can execute this by functioning on:Focutilizing on results, on self-achievement, and also not on comparisons with others

Striving to always enhance and also acquire wonderful results

Cooperating more via others for assorted projects

Accepting the truth that no one deserve to be the ideal at everything.

The results of our research study have actually revealed greater competitive scores for men than for women.

5.12. Perfectionistic style

As the name of this thinking style argues, it describes the degree in which we feel the should be regarded as ‘perfect’. Of course, the require for being perfect comes at quite a high price: it is hard to be peaceful, human being seem not to be incredibly close, everything is stressful, and priorities are not really clear. This style primarily comes via a low level of self-esteem and an excessive preoccupation for avoiding mistakes. Expectations from self and others are astronomical, and it is very hard to cope through eactivities and also to expush them. Perfectionistic managers tfinish to look too a lot right into details and also hence do not view extremely well the totality. While being perfectionist seems not to be a good thing, as well low scores for this style likewise disclose some problems pertained to working under the potential and also lacking motivation and also determicountry.

In order to come to be much less perfections, human being should focus on:Understanding that the desire to be perfect is actually harmful and also time-consuming and also coming to be mindful of the reality that their work is not the exact same with their value

Improving relationships

Lowering expectations in order to obtain even more satisfaction.

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According to our study and this time unchoose our expectations, guys appeared to be even more perfectionistic than woguys (through a difference not really significant).