One factor that promotes self-esteem among minority group members is

As flourish and also reach their developmental competencies, tright here are contextual variables that promote or hinder the process. These are frequently referred to as protective and also hazard components.

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The presence or lack and also miscellaneous combinations of protective and danger factors contribute to the psychological health of Identifying protective and threat determinants in may guide the avoidance and intervention tactics to seek via them. Protective and also threat components may additionally affect the course psychological wellness disorders can take if present.

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A protective factor have the right to be characterized as “a characteristic at the biological, emotional, family, or area (including peers and also culture) level that is associated through a lower likelihood of difficulty outcomes or that reduces the negative affect of a hazard element on problem outcomes.”1 Conversely, a threat factor can be defined as “a characteristic at the organic, emotional, household, area, or social level that comes before and is linked via a greater likelihood of trouble outcomes.”2 The table below provides examples of protective and also risk components by 5 domains:, family members, peer, neighborhood, and culture.

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Risk and also Protective Factors for Mental, Emotional, and also Behavidental Disorders in Adolescences


Risk Factors


Protective Factors

Female genderEarly pubertyDifficult temperament: inadaptability, low positive mood, withdrawal, bad concentrationLow self-esteem, perceived incompetence, negative explanatory and also inferential styleAnxietyLow-level depressive symptoms and dysthymiaInsecure attachmentPoor social skills: interaction and also problem-addressing skillsExtreme need for approval and also social supportLow self-esteemShynessEmotional troubles in childhoodConduct disorderFavorable perspectives towards drugsRebelliousnessEarly substance useAntisocial behaviorHead injuryMarijuana useChildhood expocertain to lead or mercury (neurotoxins)


Confident physical developmentAcademic achievement/intellectual developmentHigh self-esteemEmotional self-regulationGood coping abilities and also problem-fixing skillsEngagement and relationships in 2 or even more of the complying with contexts: school, with peers, in athletics, employment, religious beliefs, culture
Parental depressionParent-child conflictPoor parentingNegative family members environment (may include substance abuse in parents)Child abuse/maltreatmentSingle-parent family (for girls only)DivorceMarital conflictFamily conflictParent with anxietyParental/marital conflictFamily conflict (interactions in between parents and also youngsters and among children)Parental drug/alcohol useParental unemploymentSubstance use among parentsLack of adult supervisionPoor attachment via parentsFamily dysfunctionFamily member with schizophreniaPoor parental supervisionParental depressionSexual abuse


Family provides structure, boundaries, rules, monitoring, and also predictabilitySupportive relationships with household membersClear expectations for actions and values
Peer rejectionStressful eventsPoor scholastic achievementPovertyCommunity-level stressful or traumatic eventsSchool-level stressful or traumatic eventsCommunity violenceSchool violencePovertyTraumatic eventSchool failureLow commitment to schoolNot college boundAggression towards peersAssociating through drug-using peersSocietal/community norms favor alcohol and also drug useUrban settingPovertyAssociating through deviant peersLoss of cshed connection or friends

School, Neighborhood, and Community

Presence of mentors and also support for development of skills and also interestsOpportunities for engagement within school and communityHopeful normsClear expectations for behaviorPhysical and psychological safety

Adapted from O’Connell, M. E., Boat, T., & Warner, K. E.. (2009). Preventing psychological, emotional, and also behavioral disorders among young people: Progress and also possibilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; and UNITED STATE Department of Health and Human being Services, Substance Abusage and Mental Health Services Administration (2009). Risk and also protective factors for psychological, emotional, and also behavioral disorders throughout the life cycle. Retrieved from


Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon GeneralThis Report of the Surgeon General on Mental Health is the product of a participation in between 2 federal agencies, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and the National Institutes of Health. The report provides a review of mental wellness and also a section targeted at children’s psychological wellness. One of the key sections focuses on the risk and also protective determinants pertained to mental wellness in kids.