Never pass around a photo while speaking, even if the photo is too small to be a useful visual aid.

What Are Presentation Aids?

When you provide a speech, you are presenting a lot more than simply a repertoire of words and concepts. Due to the fact that you are speaking “live and in perkid,” your audience members will certainly endure your speech with all five of their senses: hearing, vision, smell, taste, and touch. In some speaking situations, the speaker appeals only to the sense of hearing, even more or less ignoring the other senses other than to stop visual distractions by dressing and also presenting himself or herself in an correct manner. But the speaking occasion have the right to be considerably enriched by appeals to the other senses. This is the function of presentation aids.

You watching: Never pass around a photo while speaking, even if the photo is too small to be a useful visual aid.

Presentation aidsThe sources beyond the speech itself that a speaker uses to enhance the message conveyed to the audience., periodically also called sensory aids, are the sources beyond the speech itself that a speaker offers to enhance the message conveyed to the audience. The kind of presentation aids that speakers the majority of generally exploit are visual aids: pictures, diagrams, charts and also graphs, maps, and the prefer. Audible aids encompass musical excerpts, audio speech excerpts, and also sound effects. A speaker might additionally use fragrance samples or a food samples as olfactory or gustatory aids. Finally, presentation aids deserve to be three-dimensional objects, pets, and also people; they deserve to unfold over a period of time, as in the situation of a how-to demonstration.

As you deserve to see, the array of possible presentation aids is practically limitless. However before, all presentation aids have actually one thing in common: To be efficient, each presentation assist a speaker offers have to be a straight, uncluttered example of a certain aspect of the speech. It is understandable that someone presenting a speech around Abraham Lincoln could desire to incorporate a snapshot of him, but bereason the majority of human being currently know what Lincoln looked like, the picture would not contribute much to the message (unless, probably, the message was especially about the alters in Lincoln’s appearance throughout his time in office). Other visual artifacts are more most likely to deliver indevelopment more straight relevant to the speech—a diagram of the internal of Ford’s Theater where Lincoln was assassinated, a facsimile of the messy and also much-edited Gettysburg Address, or a photograph of the Lincoln family, for example. The key is that each presentation help must straight express an idea in your speech.

Moreover, presentation aids must be offered at the moment once you are presenting the certain concepts related to the assist. For instance, if you are speaking around cdental reefs and also one of your sustaining points is about the place of the world’s major reefs, it will make feeling to screen a map of these reefs while you’re talking about location. If you display screen it while you are explaining what cdental actually is, or describing the kinds of fish that feed on a reef, the map will not serve as a beneficial visual aid—in truth, it’s most likely to be a distraction.

Presentation aids need to additionally be straightforward to usage. At a conference on organic farming, your writer watched as the facilitator opened up the orientation session by developing a conceptual map of our pertains to, making use of a large newsprint pad on an easel. In his shirt pocket were wide-tipped felt markers in several colors. As he was using the black marker to create the word “pollution,” he dropped the cap on the floor, and also it rolled a couple of inches under the easel. When he bent over to pick up the cap, all the various other markers dropped out of his pocket. They rolled about as well, and also once he tried to retrieve them, he bumped the easel, leading the easel and newsprint pad to tumble over on peak of him. The audience responded with amusement and thundering applause, however the severe tone of his speech was destroyed. The following 2 days of the conference were punctuated through allusions to the unforgettable orientation speech. This is not how you will desire your speech to be remembered.

To be reliable, presentation aids need to also be easy for the listeners to watch and understand also. In this chapter, we will certainly existing some principles and also techniques to assist you incorporate hardworking, effective presentation aids into your speech. We will certainly start by stating the features that great presentation aids satisfy. Next, we will certainly check out some of the many type of types of presentation aids and just how finest to architecture and use them. We will additionally explain miscellaneous media that can be supplied for presentation aids. We will certainly conclude through tips for effective preparation and use of presentation aids in a speech.


Learning Objectives

List 4 factors why presentation aids are vital in public speaking. Exordinary 2 ways in which presentation aids ca boost audience understanding of a message.

Why should you use presentation aids? If you have prepared and also rehearsed your speech adequately, shouldn’t an excellent speech via an excellent distribution be enough to stand also on its own? While it is true that superior presentation aids will not rescue a poor speech, it is also necessary to recognize that a good speech deserve to often be made even better by the strategic usage of presentation aids.

Presentation aids deserve to fulfill numerous functions: they deserve to serve to boost your audience’s knowledge of the information you are conveying, enhance audience memory and also retention of the message, include array and also interemainder to your speech, and improve your credibility as a speaker. Let’s examine each of these attributes.


Improving Audience Understanding

Human interaction is a facility process that often leads to misunderstandings. If you are prefer many people, you can easily remember cases as soon as you misconstrued a message or when someone else misunderstood what you shelp to them. Misunderstandings occur in public speaking just as they carry out in day-to-day conversations.

One reason for misunderstandings is the fact that perception and also interpretation are very complex individual processes. Most of us have actually viewed the image in which, depending on your perception, you watch either the outline of a vase or the facial prodocuments of 2 world encountering each various other. This reflects just how interpretations deserve to differ, and also it implies that your presentations have to be based upon careful thought and preparation to maximize the likelihood that your listeners will understand your presentations as you intend them to.

As a speaker, among your fundamental purposes is to help your audience understand your message. To alleviate misexpertise, presentation aids have the right to be used to clarify or to emphadimension.


Clarifying

Clarification is vital in a speech bereason if some of the indevelopment you convey is unclear, your listeners will certainly come away confused or maybe even misled. Presentation aids deserve to help clarifyTo make clear so that the audience understands your meanings the way you intend. a message if the indevelopment is facility or if the point being made is a visual one.

If your speech is around the affect of the Coriolis result on tropical storms, for instance, you will have good challenge clarifying it without a diagram because the procedure is a complicated one. The diagram in Figure 15.1 "Coriolis Effect" would certainly be efficient because it reflects the audience the interactivity between equatorial wind patterns and also wind trends moving in various other directions. The diagram permits the audience to procedure the indevelopment in 2 ways: via your verbal explacountry and also via the visual elements of the diagram.

Figure 15.2 "Model of Communication" is another example of a diagram that maps out the procedure of huguy interaction. In this photo you clearly have actually a speaker and an audience (albeit slightly abstract), with the labels of resource, channel, message, receivers, and feedearlier to show the fundamental direct version of humale communication.


Figure 15.1 Coriolis Effect

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Figure 15.2 Model of Communication

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Figure 15.3 Petroglyph

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Another facet of clarifying occurs when a speaker wants to visually help audience members understand also a visual concept. For example, if a speaker is talking about the prominence of petroglyphs in Native Amerideserve to society, just describing the petroglyphs won’t entirely aid your audience to visualize what they look favor. Instead, showing an instance of a petroglyph, as in Figure 15.3 "Petroglyph", can even more easily help your audience form a clear psychological photo of your intfinished interpretation.


Emphasizing

When you usage a presentational aid for emphasisTo impress the prominence or to repeat the verbal message in visual develop., you impress your listeners via the prestige of an concept. In a speech on water conservation, you might attempt to display the environmental proportions of the resource. When you use a conceptual illustration choose the one in Figure 15.4 "Planetary Water Supply", you present that if the civilization water supply were equal to ten gallons, only ten drops would be accessible and also safe and clean for human or family intake. This drawing is effective bereason it emphasizes the scarcity of beneficial water and also hence draws attention to this essential information in your speech.


Figure 15.4 Planetary Water Supply

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Figure 15.5 Chinese Lettering Amplified

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Source: Image courtesy of Wikimedia, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Acupuncture_chart_300px.jpg.


Another method of emphasizing that can be done visually is to zoom in on a specific element of interemainder within your speech. In Figure 15.5 "Chinese Lettering Amplified", we watch a visual help offered in a speech on the prominence of miscellaneous parts of Chinese personalities. On the left side of the visual help, we watch exactly how the characters all fit together, via an emphasized variation of a solitary character on the ideal.


Aiding Retention and Recall

The second attribute that presentation aids deserve to serve is to rise the audience’s chances of remembering your speech. A 1996 post by the US Department of Labor summarized research study on how civilization learn and remember. The authors found that “83% of humale discovering occurs visually, and also the continuing to be 17% through the other senses—11% via hearing, 3.5% via smell, 1% via taste, and 1.5% with touch.”United States Department of Labor. (1996). Presenting reliable presentations with visual aids. Retrieved from http://www.osha.gov Many of how human being learn is with seeing points, so the visual component of finding out is extremely important. The article goes on to note that indevelopment stored in permanent memory is additionally influenced by just how we initially learn the material. In a study of memory, learners were asked to respeak to information after a three day duration. The researchers uncovered that they retained 10 percent of what they heard from an oral presentation, 35 percent from a visual presentation, and also 65 percent from a visual and dental presentation.Lockard, J., & Sidowski, J. R. (1961). Learning in fourth and sixth graders as a role of sensory mode of stimulus presentation and also overt or covert exercise. Journal of Educational Psychology, 52(5), 262–265. doi: 10.1037/h0043483 It’s exceptional to view just how the linked impact of both the visual and dental components deserve to add to permanent memory.

For this reason, exposure to a visual picture can serve as a memory assist to your listeners. When your graphic imperiods deliver indevelopment efficiently and as soon as your listeners understand also them plainly, audience members are likely to remember your message lengthy after your speech is over.

In addition, people often are able to remember indevelopment that is presented in sequential actions more easily than if that indevelopment is presented in an unarranged pattern. When you use a presentation assist to display screen the organization of your speech, you will certainly aid your listeners to observe, follow, and remember the sequence of information you conveyed to them. This is why some instructors display a lecture outline for their students to follow during class.

An included plus of using presentation aids is that they have the right to increase your memory while you are speaking. Using your presentation aids while you rehearse your speech will familiarize you through the association in between a given area in your speech and the presentation aid that acservice providers that material. For instance, if you are giving an informative speech around diamonds, you might arrangement to screen a sequence of slides illustrating the most renowned diamond shapes: brilliant, marquise, emerald, and so on. As you finish describing one form and development to the following slide, seeing the following diamond shape will certainly assist you remember the indevelopment around it that you are going to provide.


Adding Variety and also Interest

A third function of presentation aids is simply to make your speech even more interesting. While it is true that a good speech and a well-rehearsed delivery will currently include variety in numerous elements of the presentation, in many type of instances, a speech have the right to be made even more interesting by the use of well-favored presentation aids.

For example, you may have actually prepared a very great speech to inform a group of gardeners about several new varieties of roses suitable for prospering in your regional location. Although your listeners will certainly undoubtedly understand and also remember your message exceptionally well without any type of presentation aids, wouldn’t your speech have higher affect if you accompanied your remarks via a snapshot of each rose? You have the right to imagine that your audience would be also even more enthralled if you had the capability to display screen an actual flower of each variety in a bud vase.

Similarly, if you were speaking to a group of gourmet cooks about Indian spices, you might desire to carry out tiny samples of seasonings that they can smell and also taste in the time of your speech. Taste researcher Linda Bartoshuk has actually offered presentations in which audience members obtain tiny pieces of fruit and are asked to taste them at specific points during the speech.Association for Psychological Science. (2011, May 28). Miracle fruit and flavor: An experiment performed at APS 2010


Enhancing a Speaker’s Credibility

Presentation aids alone will certainly not be enough to produce a experienced image. As we pointed out previously, exceptional presentation aids will certainly not rescue a poor speech. However, also if you give a good speech, you run the threat of showing up unskilled if your presentation aids are poorly executed. This indicates that in addition to containing crucial indevelopment, your presentation aids should be clear, clean, uncluttered, arranged, and also big sufficient for the audience to see and also translate properly. Misspellings and also poorly designed presentation aids deserve to damages your credibility as a speaker. Conversely, a high quality presentation will add to your expert image. In addition, make certain that you offer appropriate crmodify to the source of any type of presentation aids that you take from other resources. Using a statistical chart or a map without proper credit will detract from your credibility, just as using a quotation in your speech without credit would certainly.

If you emphasis your initiatives on creating presentation aids that contribute effectively to your interpretation, that look skilled, and also that are tackled well, your audience will many most likely appreciate your initiatives and also pay cshed attention to your message. That attention will certainly help them learn or understand also your topic in a brand-new method and also will for this reason aid the audience view you as a knowledgeable, experienced, credible speaker.


Key Takeaways

Presentation aids should aid audiences more thoroughly understand also a speaker’s standard message. There are four fundamental factors to use presentation aids. First, they rise audience understanding of a speaker’s message. Second, they aid audiences retain and recall a speaker’s message after the fact. Third, they make a speech more amazing by including range. Lastly, by making a speaker’s in its entirety speech more polimelted, presentation aids ca boost an audience’s perception of the speaker’s credibility. Presentation aids assist an audience even more clearly understand also a speaker’s message in two ways: they help clarify and also they help emphadimension. Presentation aids have the right to help the audience to understand complex principles or procedures and have the right to additionally display which concepts are the majority of necessary in the speech.

Exercises

Look at the outline you have prepared for a classroom speech. Where in the speech would certainly it be correct to use presentation aids? Why would presentation aids aid at the points you identify? Presentational slides from speeches are occasionally obtainable digital. Search for and evaluate three sets of presentation slides you uncover online. Identify three ways that the slides might be boosted to be even more effective presentation aids.

As we observed in the situation of the orientation presentation at the organic farming conference, utilizing presentation aids have the right to be riskies. However before, via a small forebelieved and also enough exercise, you have the right to choose presentation aids that improve your message and increase your experienced appearance in front of an audience.

One principle to save in mind is to usage just as many presentation aids as necessary to existing your message or to accomplish your classroom assignment. Although the maxim “less is more” might sound favor a cliché, it really does use in this instance. The number and the technical sophistication of your presentation aids need to never before overshadow your speech.

Another necessary consideration is modern technology. Keep your presentation aids within the borders of the working technology easily accessible to you. Whether or not your classroom modern technology works on the day of your speech, you will certainly still have to existing. What will certainly you do if the computer file containing your slides is corrupted? What will certainly you do if the easel is broken? What if you had actually counted on stacking your visuals on a table that disshows up appropriate when you need it? You have to be ready to adapt to an uncomfortable and also scary instance. This is why we urge students to go to the classroom at leastern fifteen minutes ahead of time to test the devices and asparticular the problem of things they’re planning to use. As the speaker, you are responsible for arranging the points you should make your presentation aids work-related as intended. Carry a roll of duct tape so you have the right to screen your poster even if the easel is gone. Find an extra chair if your table has actually disappeared. Test the computer system setup, and also have an alternate arrangement all set in situation there is some glitch that stays clear of your computer-based presentation aids from being usable. The more sophisticated the tools is, the more you have to be prepared through an alternative, even in a “smart classroom.”

More essential than the method of delivery is the audience’s capacity to see and also understand also the presentation assist. It should supply clear information, and it should not distract from the message. Avoid overly sophisticated presentation aids bereason they can distract the audience’s attention from your message. Instead, simplify as much as possible, emphasizing the information you want your audience to understand.

Anvarious other thing to remember is that presentation aids perform not “stop for themselves.” When you display a visual help, you need to describe what it reflects, pointing out and naming the the majority of important features. If you use an audio assist such as a musical excerpt, you must tell your audience what to listen for. Similarly, if you use a video clip, it is approximately you as the speaker to point out the attributes in the video that assistance the suggest you are making.

Although tright here are many advantageous presentation tools, you have to not attempt to usage eextremely among these tools in a single speech. Your presentation aids have to be designed to look prefer a systematic collection. For instance, if you decide to usage 3 slides and a poster, all four of these visual aids should manipulate the same kind font and standard architecture.

Now that we’ve explored some fundamental hints for preparing visual aids, let’s look at the a lot of common kinds of visual aids: charts, graphs, depictions, objects/models, and also people.


Charts

A chartA graphical representation of information (frequently numerical) or a sketch representing an ordered procedure. is generally characterized as a graphical depiction of information (regularly numerical) or a sketch representing an ordered procedure. Whether you produce your charts or execute research study to discover charts that currently exist, it is important for them to exactly enhance the specific purpose in your speech. Figure 15.6 "Acupuncture Charts" mirrors 2 charts related to acupuncture. Although both charts are good, they are not equal. One chart might be valuable in a speech about the history and advance of acupuncture, while the other chart would be even more beneficial for reflecting the areas of meridians, or the lines alengthy which energy is thought to circulation, and the acupuncture points.

In the rest of this area, we’re going to discover 3 common forms of charts: statistical charts, sequence-of-measures chart, and decision trees.


Source: Woods, S. E., & Raju, U. (2001). Maternal smoking and also the hazard of congenital birth defects: A cohort examine. Journal of the Amerihave the right to Board of Family Practitioners, 14, 330–334.


For the majority of audiences, statistical presentations must be maintained as basic as possible, and also they need to be explained. The statistical chart displayed in Figure 15.7 "Birth Weight Chi-Square" is from a examine studying the results of maternal cigarette smoking on a range of congenital birth defects. Unless you are familiar with statistics, this chart might be incredibly confmaking use of. When visually displaying information from a quantitative study, you need to make sure that you understand also the product and also can effectively and also simply describe just how one must analyze the information. If you are unsure about the information yourself, then you need to most likely not usage this form of indevelopment. This is surely an example of a visual aid that, although it delivers a minimal type of indevelopment, does not stop for itself.


Source: Imperiods courtesy of LadyofHats, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:MITOSIS_cells_secuence.svg, and the National Institutes of Health, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:MajorEventsInMitosis.jpg.


Charts are also valuable once you are trying to define a process that entails a number of actions. The two visual aids in Figure 15.8 "Steps in Cell Reproduction" both depict the process of cell division called mitosis using a sequence-of-procedures chart, however they each deliver various indevelopment. The initially chart lacks labels to indicate the various phases of cell department. Although the initially chart may have actually even more color and look even more polished, the missing information might confuse your audience. In the second chart, each phase is labeled with a brief explanation of what is happening, which have the right to aid your audience understand the procedure.


Decision trees are advantageous for mirroring the relationships between principles. The instance in Figure 15.9 "To Play or Not to Play" reflects just how a decision tree can be provided to recognize the correct weather for playing baseround. Similar to the various other types of charts, you want to be certain that the indevelopment in the chart is pertinent to the purpose of your speech and also that each question and decision is clearly labeled.


Graphs

Strictly speaking, a graph might be thought about a type of chart, yet graphs are so extensively supplied that we will certainly talk about them individually. A graphA pictorial representation of the relationships of quantitative information using dots, lines, bars, pie slices, and the like. is a photographic depiction of the relationships of quantitative data utilizing dots, lines, bars, pie slices, and also the like. Graphs show the variation in one variable in compariboy with that of one or even more other variables. Wbelow a statistical chart might report the suppose periods of individuals entering college, a graph would show just how the mean era alters over time. A statistical chart may report the amount of computers offered in the USA, while a graph will certainly show the breakdvery own of those computer systems by operating systems such as Windows, Macintosh, and also Linux. Public speakers can present graphs utilizing a range of different layouts. Some of those layouts are specialized for miscellaneous professional areas. Very facility graphs frequently contain as well much indevelopment that is not regarded the objective of a student’s speech. If the graph is cluttered, it becomes challenging to comprehend.

In this area, we’re going to analyze the common graphs speakers utilize in their speeches: line graphs, bar graphs, and also pie graphs.


Source: Image courtesy of Nehrams 2020, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:EnronStockPriceAug00Jan02.jpg.


A line graph is designed to show trends over time. In Figure 15.10 "Enron’s Stock Price", we view a line graph portraying the fevery one of Enron’s stock price from August 2000 to January 2002. Notice that although it has actually some steep rises, the line has an as a whole downward trfinish plainly illustrating the plummeting of Enron’s stock price. Showing such a line graph helps the audience view the relationships in between the numbers, and also audiences have the right to understand also the information by seeing the graph a lot more easily than they could if the speaker simply review the numbers aloud.


Bar Graph

Bar graphs are helpful for reflecting the distinctions between quantities. They deserve to be offered for population demographics, fuel prices, math capability in various qualities, and many kind of other kinds of data.

The graph in Figure 15.11 "Natural Death vs. Homicide" is well designed. It is relatively easy and is very closely labeled, making it simple for you to guide your audience through the amounts of each form of fatality. The bar graph is designed to show the difference in between herbal deaths and homicides throughout various age groups. When you look at the information, the initially grouping plainly reflects that eighteen- to twenty-four-year-olds are more likely to die because of a homicide than any of the various other age groups.


Source: Image courtesy of Centers for Disease Control and also Prevention, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Homicide_suicide_USA.gif.


The graph in Figure 15.12 "Distribution of Income and Wealth in the United States" is a complex bar graph depicting the disparity between the haves and the have actually nots within the USA. On the left hand also side of the graph you can see that the Top 20% of world within the United States account for 84.7% of all of the riches and also 50.1% of all of the earnings. On the other hand also, those in the bottom 40% account for only 0.2% of the riches and 12.1% of the actual income.



While the graph is exceptionally well designed, it presents a good deal of indevelopment. In a written publication, readers will certainly have time to sit and analyze the graph, yet in a speaking case, audience members need to have the ability to understand also the indevelopment in a graph incredibly conveniently. For that factor, this graph is most likely not as reliable for speeches as the one in Figure 15.11 "Natural Death vs. Homicide".


Pie Graph

Pie graphs have to be streamlined as a lot as feasible without eliminating crucial indevelopment. Similar to various other graphs, the sections of the pie must be plotted proportionally. In the pie graph presented in Figure 15.13 "Causes of Concussions in Children", we see a clear and proportional chart that has been color-coded. Color-coding is helpful once it’s tough to fit the explanations in the actual sections of the graph; in that case, you need to encompass a legend, or crucial, to indicate what the colors in the graph mean. In this graph, audience members deserve to watch very easily that falls are the main reason kids obtain concussions.


Source: Image courtesy of Brutannica, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:World_population_pie_chart.JPG.


The pie graph in Figure 15.14 "World Populations" is jumbled, illegible, confmaking use of, and overwhelming in eexceptionally method. The usage of color coding doesn’t assist. Overall, this graph ssuggest contains too a lot indevelopment and also is more likely to confuse an audience than help them understand also something.


Representations

In the people of presentation aids, representationsA presentation help designed to reexisting a real procedure or object. is the word supplied to classify a team of aids designed to represent actual processes or objects. Often, speakers desire to visually demonstrate something that they cannot physically bring through them to the speech. Maybe you’re offering a speech on the humale brain, and also you just don’t have actually access to a cadaver’s brain. Instead of bringing in a actual brain, you could usage a photo of a brain or a picture that represents the human brain. In this area we’re going to check out 4 widespread representations: diagrams, maps, photographs, and also video or recordings.

See more: Solved: 38) Which Of The Following Is An Example Of An Ecosystem S?


Diagrams

DiagramsDrawing that outlines and also defines the components of an object, procedure, or phenomenon that cannot be conveniently checked out. are drawings or sketches that outline and explain the components of an object, process, or phenomenon that cannot be readily checked out. Like graphs, diagrams deserve to be thought about a form of chart, as in the instance of company charts and also procedure flow charts.


When you use a diagram, be sure to describe each component of the phenomenon, paying special attention to elements that are complicated or at risk to misexpertise. In the example displayed in Figure 15.15 "The Human being Eye", you could wish to highlight that the light stimulus is reversed as soon as it is processed via the brain or that the optic nerve is not a single stalk as many kind of world think.


Maps

Maps are incredibly valuable if the indevelopment is clear and also limited. There are all kinds of maps, including populace, weather, sea existing, political, and also economic maps, but you should have the ability to uncover the best type for the objective of your speech. Choose a map that emphasizes the indevelopment you should supply.

The map presented in Figure 15.16 "Afrideserve to Map via Nigerian Emphasis" is easy, mirroring clearly the geographical area of Nigeria. This deserve to be exceptionally helpful for some audiences that might not have the ability to name and situate nations on the continent of Africa.


Figure 15.17 "Rhode Island also Map" is a map of the state of Rhode Island, and it emphasizes the facility configuration of islands and also watermethods that characterize this state’s location. Although the map does not list the names of the islands, it is useful in orienting the audience to the direction and also distance of the islands to various other geographic features, such as the city of Providence and the Atlantic Ocean.


Source: Image courtesy of Mathieu Dréo, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tall_ship_rigging_in_amsterdam_close.jpg.


Sometimes a photograph or a illustration is the finest way to display an unacquainted however vital detail. Figure 15.18 "Wigwam Picture" is a photograph of a wigwam, a wigwam was a living dwelling used by Native Americans in the North East. In this photograph you can view the curved birchbark exterior, which renders this dwelling best for a range of weather problems. The photograph of the tall ship in Figure 15.19 "Ship’s Rigging" emphasizes the sheer amount and also intricacy of the ship’s rigging.


Video or Audio Recordings

Another exceptionally helpful form of presentation aid is a video or audio recording. Whether it is a short video from a website such as YouTube or Vimeo, a segment from a song, or a piece of a podcast, a well-favored video or audio recording may be a great option to improve your speech.

Imagine, for instance, that you’re offering a speech on how “Lap-Band” surgeries assist civilization shed weight. One of the sections of your speech could describe how the Lap-Band also works, so you might conveniently present the complying with forty-three-second video to demonstrate the medical part of the surgical procedure (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KPuThbFMxGg). Maybe you want to include a recording of a actual patient explaining why he or she determined to obtain the Lap-Band. Then you can include a podcast choose this one from the Medical College of South Carolina (http://medicaluniversc.http.internapcdn.net/medicaluniversc_vitalstream_com/podcasts/2007/1_Treado_June_22_final.mp3).

There is one significant caveat to utilizing audio and also video clips in the time of a speech: execute not forobtain that they are meant to be aids to your speech, not the speech itself! In enhancement, be sure to prevent these three mistakes that speakers often make once making use of audio and also video clips:

Avoid choosing clips that are as well lengthy for the as a whole length of the speech. If you are providing a five-minute speech, then any type of audio or video clip you use need to be under thirty seconds in length. Don’t fail to practice via the audio or video equipment prior to speaking. If you are unacquainted with the tools, you’ll look foolish trying to number out how it works. This fiddling about will certainly not just take your audience out of your speech but additionally have an unfavorable affect on your credibility. Don’t fail to cue the clip to the appropriate location prior to start your speech. We cannot tell you the variety of times we’ve viewed students spfinish practical speech time trying to discover a clip on YouTube or a DVD. You need to make sure your clip is all set to go prior to you start speaking.

Objects or Models

Objects and models are one more form of presentation aid that can be incredibly helpful in gaining your audience to understand also your message. ObjectsA tangible, physical item a speaker can organize up and also talk around throughout a speech. refer to anypoint you could organize up and also talk about during your speech. If you’re talking about the importance of not utilizing plastic water bottles, you could host up a plastic water bottle and also a stainless steel water bottle as examples. If you’re talking about the percussion family members of musical tools and you own (and also deserve to play) a number of different percussion instruments, you deserve to present your audience in person what they look favor and just how they sound.

ModelsA three-dimensional re-development of a physical object., on the various other hand also, are re-creations of physical objects that you cannot have easily available with you during a speech. If you’re providing a speech on heart murmurs, you may be able to show exactly how heart murmurs work by holding up a version of the human heart.


People and Animals

The next category of presentation aids are human being and also pets. We deserve to regularly use ourselves or other world to adequately demonstrate an concept throughout our speeches.


Animals as Presentation Aids

When providing a speech on a topic relating to pets, it is frequently tempting to lug an pet to serve as your presentation help. While this have the right to sometimes add a very engaging measurement to the speech, it carries some serious risks that you should take into consideration.

The initially threat is that animal actions tends to be unpredictable. You might think this won’t be a difficulty if your presentation aid animal is a small enough to be kept confined throughout your speech—for instance, a goldfish in a bowl or a lizard or bird in a cage. However, also caged animals have the right to be incredibly distracting to your audience if they run about, chirp, or exhilittle other agitated habits. The possibilities are great that an animal will react to the anxiety of an unacquainted instance by displaying actions that does not contribute positively to your speech.

The second threat is that some audience members may respond negatively to a live pet. In enhancement to common fears and aversions to animals choose snakes, spiders, and mice, many kind of world have allergies to miscellaneous pets.

The 3rd hazard is that some places might have actually regulations around bringing pets onto the premises. If animals are permitted, the perchild bringing the pet might be compelled to lug a veterinary certificate or may be legally responsible for any kind of damages resulted in by the pet.

For these factors, before you decide to usage an pet as a presentation assist, ask yourself if you can make your suggest equally well through a picture, model, diagram, or various other representation of the pet in question.


Speaker as Presentation Aid

Speakers deserve to frequently usage their own bodies to show facets of a speech. If your speech is about ballroom dancing or ballet, you can use your body to show the standard moves in the cha-cha or the 5 fundamental ballet positions.


Other People as Presentation Aids

In many kind of speeches, it deserve to be cumbersome and also distracting for the speaker to use her or his very own body to highlight a allude. In such cases, the finest solution is to ask someone else to serve as your presentation assist.

You must arvariety ahead of time for a perkid (or persons) to be an effective aid—carry out not assume that an audience member will volunteer on the spot. If you plan to show exactly how to immobilize a broken bone, your volunteer should understand ahead of time that you will certainly touch him or her as much as important to splint their foot. You should also make particular that they will arrive dressed presentably and that they will certainly not draw attention ameans from your message with their appearance or actions.

The transaction between you and also your humale presentation help should be correct, especially if you are going to demonstrate somepoint like a dance action. Use your absolute finest judgment around behavior, and also make certain that your human presentation help understands this measurement of the task.


Key Takeaways

Various kinds of charts have the right to help audience understanding of a speaker’s message. Statistical charts aid audiences see and also analyze numerical information. Sequence-of-procedures charts present how a process occurs. Decision trees help audience members view just how a specific decision deserve to be made in a logical fashion. Line graphs, bar graphs, and also pie graphs are generally offered by speakers to assist present numerical indevelopment. The information presented on a graph need to be clean and easily understandable from a distance. Representations are presentation aids designed to recurrent a genuine procedure or object. Commjust offered representations in public speaking include diagrams, maps, photographs, and video or audio recordings. Objects are physical items that can be held up and also supplied throughout a speech. Models, on the various other hand, describe tangible items that deserve to be hosted during a speech, but are not the actual object however fairly a facsimile of it. Speakers often will usage their very own bodies or the bodies of other human being to help them show a part of a speech. When utilizing another person, it is exceptionally necessary to coach that perboy prior to the speech to encertain that he or she will not upphase the speaker. Using pets as presentation aids is mainly not recommfinished.

Exercises

Find a speech on YouTube and also see what types of presentation aids the speaker uses. Does the speaker choose proper aids? How could you have actually made them better? Were tbelow any kind of missing presentation aids that must have been in the speech? Create a chart representing the speech creation process. Try utilizing either a sequence-of-actions chart or a decision tree. Think about your next speech. What presentation aids have the right to you use in your speech to boost your audience’s understanding?

The venue of your speech have to suggest the proper selection of presentation aids. In your classroom, you have actually several options, including some that omit technology. If you are speaking in a huge auditorium, you will practically absolutely need to use innovation to job text and imperiods on a huge display.

In keeping via careful options and reliable design, we likewise need to perform a great project in executing presentation aids. They should never before look hastily made, dirty, battered, or disorganized. They carry out not need to be fancy, however they carry out should look experienced. In this section we will certainly discuss the significant types of media that deserve to be provided for presentation aids, which encompass computer-based media, audiovisual media, and low-tech media.


Computer-Based Media

In a lot of careers in business, market, and also other professions for which students are preparing themselves, computer-based presentation aids are the norm this day. Whether the context is a weekly department meeting in a little conference room or an yearly convention in a vast amphitheater, speakers are intended to be comfortable through utilizing PowerPoint or various other equivalent software to develop and screen presentation aids.

If your public speaking course meets in a smart classroom, you have actually more than likely had actually the possibility to view the computer system in action. Many such units this day are nimble and also easy to usage. Still, “easy” is a loved one term. Don’t take for granted someone else’s advice that “it’s really self-explanatory”—rather, make certain to practice ahead of time. It is also wise to be all set for technical difficulties, which deserve to happen to even the many sophisticated computer system individuals. When Steve Jobs, CEO of Apple and also cofounder of Pixar, presented a new iPhone 4 in June, 2010, his very own visual presentation froze.Machuman being. (2010, June 7). WWDC: Steve Jobs’ iPhone 4 launch glitches

The world was initially presented to computer system presentations back in the 1970s, but these software application packeras were expensive and essential very trained technicians to operate the programs. Today, tbelow are a number of presentation softwareSoftware packages that enable a speaker to visually show product via the use of a computer and projector. programs that are free or reasonably inexpensive and that can be learned conveniently by nonspecialists. Table 15.1 "Presentation Software Packages" lists a number of of these.


Table 15.1 Presentation Software Packages

Name Website Price
280 Slides http://280slides.com Free
Adobe Acrobat Presenter http://www.adobe.com/products/presenter/features $
Ajax Presents http://www.ajaxpresents.com Free
Brainshark http://www.brainshark.com $
Google Presentations http://docs.google.com/support/bin/static.py?page=overview.cs&guide=19431 Free
Harvard Graphics http://www.harvardgraphics.com $
Keynote http://www.apple.com/iwork/keynote $
OpenOffice Impress http://www.openoffice.org/product/impress.html Free
PowerPoint http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/powerpoint $
PrezentIt http://prezentit.com Free
Prezi http://prezi.com Free/$
SlideRocket http://www.sliderocket.com $
ThinkFree Show http://member.thinktotally free.com Free
Zoho Show http://present.zoho.com Free

In addition to coming to be even more conveniently accessible, presentation software has actually end up being more flexible over the years. As newly as the mid-2000s, movie critics such as the eminent graphic experienced and also NASA consultant Edward Tufte charged that PowerPoint’s tendency to pressure the user to put a details variety of bullet points on each slide in a specific format was a major danger to the precise presentation of information. As Tufte put it, “the rigid slide-by-slide hierarchies, indifferent to content, slice and also dice the evidence right into arbitrary compartments, developing an anti-narrative through choppy continuity.”Tufte, E. (2005, September 6). PowerPoint does rocket science—and better approaches for technical reports . Retrieved from http://www.edwardtufte.com/bboard/q-and-a-fetch-msg?msg_id=0001yB&topic_id=1 Tufte argues that poor decision making, such as was connected through the 2003 space shuttle Columbia disaster, might have actually been pertained to the shortcomings of such presentation aids in NASA meetings. While more current versions of PowerPoint and also equivalent programs permit much more artistic freedom in creating slides, this flexibility comes with a responsibility—the user demands to take responsibility for using the technology to support the speech and not gain carried ameans with the many kind of one-of-a-kind results the software is capable of creating.

What this boils dvery own to is observing the universal values of excellent style, which encompass unity, emphasis or focal allude, scale and also propercent, balance, and rhythm.Lauer, D. A., & Pentak, S. (2000). Design basics (fifth ed.). Ft Worth, TX: Harcourt College Publishers. As we’ve mentioned earlier, it’s mostly finest to usage a single font for the message on your visuals so that they look favor a merged set. In regards to range or propercentage, it is essential to make certain the information is huge enough for the audience to see; and given that the screen dimension might vary according to the monitor you are utilizing, this is an additional factor for practicing in development via the equipment you intend to use. The rhythm of your slide display screen must be fairly consistent—you would not want to display a dozen different slides in the first minute of a five-minute presentation and also then screen just one slide per minute for the rest of the speech.

In addition to presentation software application such as PowerPoint, speakers sometimes have actually accessibility to interenergetic computer-based presentation aids. These are regularly called “clickers”—handhosted devices that audience members host and also that are linked to a monitor to which the speaker has access. These interenergetic aids are helpful for tracking audience responses to questions, and they have the advantage over asking for a display of hands in that they can be anonymous. A variety of instructors in miscellaneous courses usage “clickers” in their classrooms.

Using computer-based aids in a speech brings up a few logistical considerations. In some venues, you might need to stand behind a high-technology console to run the computer system. You need to be mindful that this will physically isolate you from the audience you through whom you are trying to create a partnership in your speech. When you stand also behind presentation equipment, you may feel really comfortable, but you end up limiting your nonverbal interaction through your audience.

If your classroom is not equipped via a computer system and also you desire to usage presentation software media in your speech, you might of course carry your computer, or you may have the ability to schedule the delivery of a computer system cart to your classroom. In either case, inspect with your instructor around the advancement preparations that will be necessary. At some colleges, there are very few computer carts, so it is vital to reserve one well in breakthrough. You will certainly likewise want to watch if you deserve to gain accessibility to one ahead of time to practice and familiarize yourself through the vital passwords and also regulates to make your slides run properly. On the day of your speech, be sure to arrive early on sufficient to test out the equipment before course begins.


Audiovisual Media

Although audio and also video clips are often computer-based, they deserve to be (and also, in past years, constantly were) used without a computer system.

Audio presentation aids are useful for showing musical themes. For circumstances, if you’re speaking about exactly how the Polish composer Frederick Chopin was motivated by the sounds of nature, you can convey that definition just via playing an instance. If you have a smart classroom, you might have the ability to use it to play an MP3. Alternatively, you may should lug your music player. In that case, be certain the speakers in the room are up to the project. The civilization in the earlier of the room should be able to hear it, and the speakers must not sound distorted as soon as you turn the volume up.

Video that clarifies, describes, amplifies, emphasizes, or illustprices a crucial concept in your speech is appropriate, as long as you perform not count on it to execute your presentation for you. Tbelow are several points you should execute. First, recognize a details section of video that delivers interpretation. Second, “cue up” the video so that you can simply pop it right into the player, and also it will certainly begin at the right place. Third, tell your audience where the footage comes from. You can tell your audience, for circumstances, that you are showing them an instance from the 1985 BBC documentary titled “In Search of the Trojan War.” Fourth, tell your audience why you’re showing the footage. For instance, you have the right to tell them, “This is an instance of storytelling in the Bardic tradition.” You can interrupt or mute the video to make a comment about it, yet your full footage need to not usage even more than 20 percent of the moment for your speech.


Low-Tech Media

In some speaking situations, of course, computer modern technology is not easily accessible. Even if you have prepared access to modern technology, tbelow will certainly be contexts wbelow computer-based presentation aids are unnecessary or also counterabundant. And in still various other conmessages, computer-based media might be accompanied by low-tech presentation aids. One of the advantages of low-technology media is that they are extremely predictable. There’s bit that deserve to interfere with using them. In addition, they have the right to be inexpensive to create. However before, unfavor digital media, they deserve to be at risk to physical damages in the form of smudges, scratches, dents, and also rips. It deserve to be challenging to keep them skilled looking if you have to lug them with a rainstorm or blizzard, so you will have to take measures to protect them as you carry them to the speech place. Let’s study some of the low-technology media that you might usage via a speech.


Chalk or Dry-Erase Board

If you use a chalkboard or dry-erase board you are not making use of a all set presentation aidA presentation help designed and produced ahead of time to be provided as a systematic component of a speech.. Your faitempt to prepare visuals ahead of time have the right to be interpreted in numerous ways, mostly negative. If other speakers very closely design, develop, and also use attractive visual aids, yours will stand out by comparison. You will be seen as the speaker that does not take the time to prepare also a simple aid. Do not use a chalkboard or marker board and pretfinish it’s a prepared presentation help.

However, countless speakers carry out make use of chalk and also dry-erase boards successfully. Typically, these speakers usage the chalk or dry-erase board for interenergetic components of a speech. For instance, possibly you’re offering a speech in front of a team of executives. You may have a PowerPoint all all set, however at various points in your speech you desire to acquire your audience’s responses. Chalk or dry-erase boards are very useful once you desire to visually display indevelopment that you are receiving from your audience. If you ever before use a chalk or dry-erase board, follow these three easy rules:

Write huge sufficient so that everyone in the room have the right to check out. Print legibly; don’t write in cursive manuscript. Write short phrases; don’t take time to compose complete sentences.

It is also worth pointing out that some classrooms and also organization conference rooms are equipped with smartboards, or digitally enhanced whiteboards. On a smartboard you can carry up all set visuals and also then modify them as you would certainly a chalk or dry-erase board. The benefit is that you can keep a digital record of what was written for future referral. However before, as via other technology-based media, smartboards might be vulnerable to unexpected technological troubles, and also they require training and practice to be offered correctly.


Flipchart

A flipchart is beneficial once you’re trying to convey adjust over a variety of procedures. For circumstances, you could use a prepared flipchart to display dramatic population shifts on maps. In such a instance, you must prepare very visible, the same maps on three of the pages so that only the information will certainly adjust from page to web page. Each page must be neatly titled, and you need to actively point out the locations of change on each page. You might additionally usage a flip chart to display steras in the expansion and advance of the malaria-bearing mosquito. Aobtain, you need to label each web page, making an effort to give the pperiods a consistent look.

Organize your flip chart in such a way that you flip peras in one direction only, front to ago. It will certainly be difficult to flip huge peras without damaging them, and if you also have to “earlier up” and also “skip forward,” your presentation will certainly look awkward and disorganized. Peras will certainly gain damaged, and also your audience will certainly be able to hear each rip.

In enhancement, many flip charts have to be propped up on an easel of some sort. If you arrive for your speech only to uncover that the easel in the classroom has actually disappeared, you will certainly should rig up an additional mechanism that enables you to flip the peras.


Poster Board or Foam Board

Foam board consists of a thin sheet of Styrofoam through hefty paper bonded to both surfaces. It is a lightweight, inexpensive foundation for information, and also it will stand also on its very own as soon as put in an easel without curling under at the bottom edge. Poster board tends to be cheaper than foam board, however it is flimsier, more vulnerable to damage, and also can’t stand also on its own.

If you arrangement to paste labels or paragraphs of text to foam or poster board, for a skilled look you need to make sure the color of the poster board matches the color of the paper you will certainly paste on. You will additionally desire to pick a color that permits for straightforward visual contrast so your audience can see it, and it have to be a shade that’s correct for the topic. For circumstances, warm pink would certainly be the wrong shade on a poster for a speech around the Protestant Redevelopment.

Avoid producing a presentation aid that looks like you ssuggest cut images out of magazines and pasted them on. Slapping some text and also images on a board looks unexperienced and will certainly not be regarded as credible or reliable. Instead, when developing a poster you have to take the time to think around exactly how you are going to lay out your aid and make it look expert. You perform not need to spfinish lots of money to make a very sleek and also professional-looking poster.

Some schools also have access to expensive, full-color poster printers where you deserve to produce large poster for pasting on a foam board. In the actual civilization of public speaking, a lot of speakers count on the creation of skilled posters utilizing a full-color poster printer. Usually, posters are sketched out and also then designed on a computer system making use of a regimen like Microsoft PowerPoint or Publisher (these both have the choice of selecting the dimension of the published area).


Handouts

Handouts are correct for delivering indevelopment that audience members can take ameans through them. As we will certainly watch, handouts call for a great deal of management if they are to add to your credibility as a speaker.

First, make sure to lug sufficient duplicates of the handout for each audience member to acquire one. Having to share or look on with one’s neighbor does not add to a experienced image. Under no circumstances need to you ever administer a single copy of a handout to pass roughly. Tbelow are numerous reasons this is a poor idea. You will certainly have actually no control over the rate at which it circulates, or the direction it goes. In addition, only one listener will certainly be holding it while you’re making your allude about it and by the time many civilization watch it they will have actually forobtained why they should see it. In some case, it might not even reach everybody by the finish of your speech. Finally, listeners can still be passing your handout approximately during the next speaker’s speech.

Tright here are 3 feasible times to distribute handouts: prior to you start your speech, during the speech, and after your speech is over. Naturally, if you need your listeners to follow along in a handout, you will certainly should distribute it before your speech begins. If you have access to the room ahead of time, location a copy of the handout on each seat in the audience. If not, ask a volunteer to distribute them as conveniently as feasible while you prepare to begin speaking. If the handout is a “takeaway,” leave it on a table near the door so that those audience members who are interested have the right to take one on their method out; in this case, don’t forget to tell them to carry out so as you conclude your speech. It is almost never proper to distribute handouts throughout your speech, as it is distracting and also interrupts the pace of your presentation.

Like various other presentation aids, handouts have to include just the vital indevelopment to assistance your points, and that information have to be arranged in such a method that listeners will certainly be able to understand also it. For example, in a speech around how brand-new health and wellness care regulation will certainly impact little organization owners in your state, an excellent handout can summarize vital results of the law and encompass the names of state agencies through their web addresses where audience members can request more thorough information.

If your handout is designed for your audience to follow along, you must tell them so. State that you will certainly be referring to certain information throughout the speech. Then, as you’re presenting your speech, ask your audience to look, for example, at the second line in the initially cluster of indevelopment. Read that line out loud and also then go on to define its meaning.

Similar to any presentation help, handouts are not a substitute for a well-all set speech. Ask yourself what indevelopment your audience really demands to be able to take through them and how it can be presented on the page in the many advantageous and also engaging method feasible.

See more: How To Hear The French Language Out Of The Mouths, American Literature: 5


Key Takeaways

Speakers in skilled conmessages are meant to be familiar via presentation software program, such as PowerPoint. Computer-based media have the right to create very professional-looking presentation aids, but as through any other media, the universal principles of good design apply. Speakers making use of computer-based media must exercise ahead of time through the computer system they intfinish to usage in the speech. Each presentation help auto has benefits and disadvantages. As such, speakers should think via the use of visual aids and also select the a lot of appropriate ones for their individual speeches. Eincredibly presentation aid must be produced through cautious attention to content and appearance.
How would certainly you change it? What kind of presentation aids could you use in a speech on the health and wellness benefits of laughter? Why can these be good choice?

As we’ve checked out previously in this chapter, exceptional presentation aids perform not take the area of a well-all set speech. Although your presentation aids need to be able to stand also on their own in delivering information, perform not count on them to do so. Work towards that goal, yet additionally plan on explaining your presentation aids so that your audience will certainly know why you’re using them.

One mistake you should prevent is putting as well much indevelopmen