In deciding whether to use a technology, people must analyze

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3. The Nature of Technology

Technology and ScienceDesign and SystemsIssues in Technology

As long as tbelow have been world, tright here has been innovation. Undoubtedly, the techniques of shaping tools are taken as the chief evidence of the start of human society. On the entirety, modern technology has been a powerful force in the advancement of people, all the even more so as its attach with science has actually been forged. Technology—prefer language, ritual, worths, commerce, and the arts—is an intrinsic component of a social mechanism and also it both forms and mirrors the system"s values. In today"s human being, modern technology is a facility social enterprise that consists of not just research, style, and crafts however also finance, production, management, labor, marketing, and maintenance.

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In the broadest sense, innovation extends our abilities to readjust the world: to reduced, form, or put together materials; to relocate points from one place to another; to reach farther through our hands, voices, and also senses. We usage modern technology to try to change the people to suit us better. The alters might relate to survival requirements such as food, sanctuary, or defense, or they might relate to humale aspirations such as understanding, art, or control. But the results of altering the world are frequently complicated and unpredictable. They deserve to include unexpected benefits, unsupposed prices, and also unexpected risks—any kind of of which might autumn on different social teams at various times. Anticipating the results of technology is therefore as important as proceeding its capabilities.

Science for All Americans


In the USA, unfavor in many developed nations in the civilization, innovation as a subject has actually mainly been ignored in the institutions. It is not tied to graduation needs, has no addressed place in elementary education, is lacking altogether in the college preparatory curriculum, and also does not constitute component of the content in science courses at any level.

However before, that situation is now transforming. Tright here is flourishing awareness that modern technology works in day-to-day life to shape the character of civilization. Deauthorize jobs are ending up being more noticeable in the elementary qualities, and also the transformation of commercial arts and various other subjects right into technology education and learning is acquiring momentum. And the Science-Technology-Society (STS) focus in the curriculum is obtaining adheleas.

The task ahead is to construct technology education and learning right into the curriculum, as well as usage technology to promote discovering, so that all students become well indeveloped around the nature, powers, and limitations of innovation. As a huguy enterpincrease, innovation has actually its own history and also identity, quite apart from those of science and also math. In background, it predelivered scientific research and only slowly has actually pertained to draw on science—expertise of how the herbal civilization works—to aid in managing what happens in the world. In contemporary times, modern technology has actually come to be increasingly characterized by the interdependent relationships it has through science and also math. The benchmarks that follow suggest exactly how students have to build their understanding of these relationships.

This chapter presents referrals on what knowledge around the nature of innovation is required for clinical literacy and also emphasizes means of reasoning around modern technology that deserve to contribute to making use of it wisely. Chapter 8: The Designed World presents ethics relevant to some of the essential innovations of today"s world. Chapter 10: Historical Perspectives, consists of a discussion of the Industrial Revolution. Chapter 12: Habits of Mind has some abilities relevant to participating in a technological human being.


A. Technology and Science


Technology is an overoperated term. It once intended learning how to carry out things—the useful arts or the examine of the valuable arts. But it has additionally concerned mean developments such as pencils, television, aspirin, microscopes, and so on, that human being use for particular objectives, and it describes huguy tasks such as farming or production and also to procedures such as animal breeding or voting or battle that adjust particular elements of the human being. Further, modern technology periodically describes the commercial and army establishments dedicated to creating and also utilizing innovations and also know-how. In any kind of of these senses, technology has economic, social, honest, and also aesthetic ramifications that depend on where it is supplied and on people"s attitudes toward its use.

Sorting out these issues is most likely to occur over many years as students interact in design and also technology activities. First, they should usage different devices to execute different points in science and to settle valuable troubles. Through architecture and technology tasks, students deserve to interact in problem-resolving related to a vast variety of real-world contexts. By undertaking design tasks, students deserve to encounter innovation worries also though they cannot define technology. They should have their attention dubbed to the use of devices and instruments in science and the use of practical expertise to settle difficulties prior to the underlying principles are understood.


Kindergarten via Grade 2

Young kids are veteran technology users by the time they enter college. They ride in automobiles, usage family members utilities, operate wagons and bikes, usage garden devices, aid via the food preparation, operate the television set, and also so on. Children are also herbal explorers and also inventors, and they like to make things. School must offer students many type of opportunities to study the properties of materials, to use tools, and to style and construct things. Activities need to focus on troubles and also demands in and also approximately the institution that interemainder the youngsters and that have the right to be addressed feasibly and safely.

The job in these qualities is to start to channel the students" inventive power and to boost their purposeful usage of tools and—in the process—increase their knowledge of what constitutes a tool (a container, paper and also pencil, video camera, magnifier, etc.). Deauthorize and also innovation activities have the right to be provided to present students to measurement tools and approaches in a herbal and also systematic manner. For instance, five-year-olds have actually little bit trouble in creating and making things for their teddy bears built to an proper range. Measurements need to deal with magnitudes that are comprehensible to youngsters of this age, which excludes, for example, the circumference of the earth or the diameter of a microbe.


Current Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the end of the 2nd grade, students have to recognize that


1993 Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the end of the 2nd grade, students have to know that


Grades 3 through 5

These years should construct on the previous ones by enhancing the sophistication of the architecture projects that students undertake. This technique involves students" increasing their arsenal of devices and techniques and also improving their skills in measurement, calculation, and also communication. Activities calling on the use of tools such as microscopes, telescopes, camages, and also sound recorders to make monitorings and also dimensions are particularly necessary for reinforcing the importance of the dependence of scientific research on modern technology. Just as important, students should construct ability and confidence in using ordinary devices for personal, everyday functions.

Students need to start now to compose around innovation, particularly about exactly how modern technology helps people. Most of the complexities of the social aftermath of the usage of modern technology deserve to wait, however students have to start to take into consideration different methods of doing something and compare the benefits and also disadvantages.


Current Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the finish of the fifth grade, students need to know that


1993 Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the end of the 5th grade, students should know that


Grades 6 with 8

Students can currently develop a broader see of innovation and also exactly how it is both choose and unfavor scientific research. They perform not quickly distinguish in between science and innovation, seeing both as trying to obtain things (including experiments) to take place the means one desires them to. Tright here is no must urge on definitions, yet students" attention can be drawn to when they are clearly trying to uncover something out, plainly trying to make somepoint take place, or doing some of each.

Additionally, as students start to think about their very own feasible occupations, they must be introduced to the selection of careers that involve technology and scientific research, consisting of engineering, architecture, and also industrial architecture. Thunstable tasks, readings, area trips, and interviews, students can begin to build a sense of the good variety of occupations concerned technology and to science, and what preparation they call for.


Current Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that


1993 Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the end of the 8th grade, students must recognize that


Grades 9 with 12

In addition to participating in major architecture jobs to deepen their understanding of modern technology, students now have to be aided to construct a richer feeling of the relationships linking technology and also science. That deserve to come from reflection on the task experiences and from a examine of the history of scientific research and innovation. Certain episodes in the background of scientific research illustrate the prestige of technology to scientific research and also the difficulty of clearly separating scientific research and technology. The Industrial Revolution is particularly vital in this regard.


Current Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the finish of the 12th grade, students should understand that


1993 Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that


B. Design and Systems


Engineering is the professional area a lot of very closely, or at least a lot of deliberately, connected with modern technology. Engineers resolve troubles by using scientific principles to valuable ends. They architecture tools, devices, structures, and units to attain specified ends, and have to carry out so while taking into account restrictions imposed by time, money, law, morality, inenough indevelopment, and even more. In brief, engineering has actually mainly to execute with the architecture of technical devices.

Perhaps the finest way to become acquainted via the nature of engineering and design is to execute some. By participating in such tasks, students need to learn just how to analyze cases and gather appropriate information, specify problems, geneprice and evaluate artistic ideas, build their principles into tangible solutions, and assess and boost their services. To end up being good problem solvers, students have to construct drawing and also modeling skills, in addition to the capability to record their analyses, suggestions, and outcomes in clear language.

Gradually, as students get involved in even more innovative jobs, they will enrespond to constraints and the need for making trade-offs. The concept of trade-off in technology—and more broadly in all social systems—is so crucial that teachers have to put it right into as many kind of problem-solving contexts as feasible. Students must be explicit in their own proposals about what is being traded off for what. They have to learn to expect the very same of others who propose technical, economic, or political solutions to problems.

Feedback have to be one more main principle learned in the research of technical systems. Students are likely to encounter it often in biology, physiology, politics, games, conversation, and also even as soon as operating devices and devices. Students should likewise learn that modern technologies always have actually side effects and also that all technological units deserve to fail. These concepts can be presented in easy develop early and progressively end up being even more influential in the top qualities. Just as with trade-off and also feedback, these new concepts should be encountered in a range of contexts. Daily newsdocuments provide an inexhaustible supply of examples to analyze.


Kindergarten through Grade 2

Children should design and make points through simple tools and also a range of products. They have to recognize a require or opportunity of interest to them, and then plan, style, make, evaluate, and modify the style with proper aid. They can need aid identifying troubles that are both exciting to them and also within their capabilities. After they get endure functioning with one problem, they might uncover their next architecture project simpler and feel more confident around trying it.

One style consideration to be introduced ideal amethod is constraints. Safety, time, expense, school policy, area, availcapability of products, and various other realities restrict student jobs. Teachers deserve to point out that adults also face constraints as soon as they architecture things, and also that the real difficulty, for adults or children, is to devise solutions that offer great outcomes in spite of the limitations. In the early qualities, youngsters may be inclined to go via their initially design concept through little bit patience for experimentation or revision. Wbelow possible, they need to be encouraged to enhance their concepts, however it is more essential that they develop confidence in their capacity to think up and also lug out architecture jobs. When their tasks are complete, students deserve to tell what they prefer about one another"s deindications.

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Current Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the finish of the second grade, students should recognize that


1993 Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the finish of the second grade, students have to know that


Grades 3 through 5

Students should end up being increasingly comfortable via occurring deindicators and analyzing the product: "Does it work?" "Could I make it work-related better?" "Could I have actually used much better materials?" The more experience students accrue, the much less straight guidance they need. They should realize early that cooperative efforts and also individual initiative are useful in spotting and also ironing out design glitches. They need to begin to gain obstacles that need them to clarify a trouble, geneprice criteria for an acceptable solution, suggest possible options, attempt one out, and also then make adjustments or start over with a freshly proposed solution.

As students undertake more considerable architecture jobs, focus must be inserted on the idea that tright here normally is not one ideal architecture for a product or process, however a variety of choices and also possibilities. One means to attain this goal is to have actually several teams design and execute options to the exact same problem and also then comment on the benefits and disadvantages of each solution. Ideally, the troubles should be "real" and also engaging for the students.


Current Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the finish of the fifth grade, students have to know that


1993 Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the end of the fifth grade, students must recognize that


Grades 6 with 8

An idea to be developed in the middle qualities is that facility systems call for regulate mechanisms. The common thermostat for controlling room temperature is well-known to most students and also have the right to serve as a version for all control mechanisms. But students must discover exactly how controls work-related in assorted kinds of systems—equipments, athletic contests, politics, the humale body, finding out, etc. At some suggest, students should attempt to design control mechanisms, which require not be mechanical or electric, that they can actually put into procedure.

The idea of side effects have the right to be raised at this time, possibly by making use of actual instance research studies of modern technologies (antibiotics, automobiles, spray cans, and so on.) that turned out to have actually unsupposed side results. Students must also accomplish more interesting and complex constraints as they job-related on architecture tasks. Also, students have to end up being acquainted through many actual examples of how overarchitecture and also redundancy are provided to address uncertainty.


Current Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the end of the 8th grade, students must know that


1993 Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the end of the 8th grade, students should understand that


Grades 9 through 12

Adequate time need to be spent fleshing out the concepts of sources (tools, products, power, indevelopment, civilization, funding, time), units, regulate, and effects introduced in earlier qualities. Students need to additionally move to higher levels of instrumental and imaginative reasoning via significantly more demanding architecture and also technology occupational. They need exercise as people and as members of a team in emerging and defining ideas utilizing drawings and also models.

New concepts to be presented in high school incorporate hazard evaluation and modern technology assessment. Students need to become aware that designed devices are topic to faitempt however that the threat of failure deserve to be decreased by a variety of means: overarchitecture, redundancy, fail-safe designs, more research study ahead of time, more controls, and so on They need to also involved recognize that these precautions include prices that may come to be prohibitive, so that few deindicators are ideal.

Because no variety of precautions can minimize the danger of mechanism faiattract to zero, comparing the estimated threats of a proposed technology to its alternatives is frequently important. The option, generally, is not between a high-risk alternative and a risk-totally free one, yet comes dvery own to making a trade-off among actions, all of which involve some risk.

Students have to realize that analyzing risk involves looking at probabilities of events and also at exactly how poor the events would be if they were to happen. Thturbulent surveys and interviews, students deserve to learn that comparing dangers is hard bereason people differ substantially in their perception of threat, which often tends to be influenced by such matters as whether the danger is steady or instantaneous (worldwide warming versus aircraft crashes), how much control world think they have over the threat (cigarette smoking versus being struck by lightning), and also just how the risk is expressed (the variety of world impacted versus the proportion affected).


Current Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the end of the 12th grade, students need to recognize that


1993 Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the finish of the 12th grade, students must recognize that


C. Issues in Technology


More and more, citizens are referred to as on to decide which innovations to develop, which to use, and also exactly how to use them. Part of being ready for that duty is knowing around just how technology functions, consisting of its options, benefits, dangers, and also constraints. The permanent interests of society are ideal served as soon as key concerns concerning proposals to present or curtail innovation are addressed before last decisions are made. Students need to learn how to ask important questions about the immediate and also long-range results that technological innovations and also the elimination of existing modern technologies are likely to have actually. But intelligent adults disagree around wise usage of technology. Schooling have to help students learn just how to think critically around modern technology problems, not what to think about them. Teachers have the right to aid students get increated attitudes on the miscellaneous technologies and also their social, cultural, financial, and also ecological aftermath. When teachers carry out express their personal views (to demonstrate that adults have the right to have actually well-increated opinions), they need to additionally acexpertise alternative views and sensibly state the proof, logic, and also worths that lead various other people to have those views.

Understanding the potential affect of modern technology may be instrumental to civilization. Technology is not innately great, poor, or neutral. Typically, its results are facility, tough to estimate accurately, and likely to have different values for different world at various times. Its effects depfinish upon human decisions about breakthrough and use. Person experience through modern technology, consisting of the invention of procedures and also devices, mirrors that world have some control over their destiny. They deserve to tackle difficulties by looking for better means to execute things, inventing solutions and also taking threats.

Case researches of actual technologies carry out a great method for students to talk about threat. Tbelow is a vast variety of topics: the Aswan High Dam, the contraceptive pill, vapor engines, pesticides, public-opinion polling, penicillin, standardized parts, refrigeration, nuclear power, fluoridated water, and hundreds more. Teachers and also students can assemble case-examine material or use commercially developed situation research studies. Good architecture projects and also situation researches have the right to aid students to develop insight into suffer.


Kindergarten via Grade 2

Design tasks offer students amazing methods to settle problems, use tools well, meacertain things very closely, make reasonable estimations, calculate accurately, and also connect clearly. And projects additionally let students ponder the impacts their creations can have actually. For example, if a team of the children in a class decides to construct a big shenable tank to develop an ocean habitat, the whole course must talk about what happens if the tank leaks, whether this job interferes through various other tasks or classroom activities, whether tbelow are other ways to learn around sea habitats, and so forth. More mostly, young youngsters have the right to begin to learn around the effects that civilization have on their surroundings.

Students at this level are old enough to check out that fixing some problems might lead to various other difficulties, however the social affect matters need to not be pressed too tough currently. That could overemphasize constraints and also take a lot of the fun out of doing easy jobs by requiring too a lot evaluation.


Current Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the finish of the second grade, students should know that


1993 Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the end of the 2nd grade, students need to know that


Grades 3 with 5

Students have the right to become interested in comparing current modern technology through that of earlier times, as well as the technology in their everyday stays through that of various other locations in the civilization. They deserve to imagine what life would be like without particular technology, and what brand-new innovation the future can organize. Reading around other civilizations or previously times than their own will certainly illustrate the main function that various modern technologies play. Students might acquire connected in existing projects concerned technology—saving power, recycling products, reducing litter, and also the favor. Waste disposal might be a specifically comprehensible and also helpful topic in directing their attention to the side impacts of modern technology.


Current Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the end of the 5th grade, students should recognize that


1993 Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the finish of the fifth grade, students have to understand that


Grades 6 via 8

To enaffluent their understanding of exactly how modern technology has actually shaped just how people live now, students have to study what life was like under various technical situations in the past. They must become conscious that significant alters developed in the lives of civilization as soon as innovation gave even more and also better food, manage of sewage, warm and light for houses, and rapid transport. Studying the past must ensex respect for the innovations and constructions of earlier people and cultures.

Both historical and literary approaches should be offered to imagine what the future will certainly bring and also to reflect on people"s somewhat restricted capacity to predict the future. Science fiction and novels set in future times indicate alters in huguy life that might take place bereason of yet undeveloped innovation. Stories selected for this purpose must raise many different concerns concerning the impact of innovation, and also students should probe beneath the plot to analyze those worries. Student teams have the right to formulate and compare their very own scenarios for some future time—say, when they are adults.


Current Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the finish of the 8th grade, students need to recognize that


1993 Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the finish of the 8th grade, students need to understand that


Grades 9 via 12

As said earlier, the real-human being work of students as supplemented by instance researches probably offers the a lot of reliable means to examine problems regarded how society responds to the promise or threat of technological change—whether by adopting new technologies or curtailing the usage of existing ones. What need to be avoided by teachers is turning the situation researches right into occasions for promoting a details allude of check out. People tend to host extremely solid opinions on the usage of modern technologies, and also not just of nuclear reactors and genetic engineering. The teacher"s task is not to administer students via the "right" answers about technology but to see to it that students know what inquiries to ask.

Students deserve to also include detail to their awareness of the effects of the huguy visibility on life. For circumstances, they have to be able to cite numerous examples of just how the development of foreign species has readjusted an ecodevice. Out of this need to come an awareness that human being can make some decisions about what life on earth will endure and a feeling of duty about working out power. Students also should learn that people cannot form every aspect of life to their very own liking.

For example, many Americans identify that technology has actually offered new goods and also solutions, however not that industrialization of agriculture, by eliminating the require for children to work-related in the areas, made it possible for them to attfinish institution, thereby raising the basic educational level of the population. These kinds of social effects should be stupassed away and those that influence huguy health and the setting.


Current Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the finish of the 12th grade, students should know that


1993 Version of the Benchmarks Statements

By the finish of the 12th grade, students should recognize that


VERSION EXPLANATION


Throughout the advance of Atlas of Science Literacy, Volume 2, Project 2061 revised the wording of some benchmarks in order to update the scientific research, boost the logical progression of principles, and also reflect the present research on student learning. New benchmarks were additionally developed as necessary to accommoday associated ideas in other finding out goals files such as Science for All Americans (SFAA), the National Science Education Standards (NSES), and the esclaims or other elements in Benchmarks for Science Literacy (BSL). We are giving accessibility to both the present and the 1993 versions of the benchmarks as a organization to our end-customers.

See more: Which Of The Following Does Not Accurately Depict A Scientific Theory?

The text of each finding out goal is followed by its code, consisting of the chapter, area, grade selection, and also the variety of the goal. Lowersituation letters at the end of the code indicate which component of the 1993 version it comes from (e.g., “a” indicates the initially sentence in the 1993 version, “b” shows the second sentence, and also so on).A single astedanger at the finish of the code suggests that the finding out goal has been edited from the original, whereas 2 asterisks expect that the principle is a new discovering goal.