How is information to make proteins passed on through generations?

Many genes contain the information necessary to make practical molecules referred to as proteins. (A few genes develop regulatory molecules that assist the cell assemble proteins.) The journey from gene to protein is complex and tightly regulated within each cell. It consists of 2 major steps: transcription and also translation. With Each Other, transcription and also translation are recognized as gene expression.

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Throughout the process of transcription, the information stored in a gene"s DNA is passed to a comparable molecule called RNA (ribonucleic acid) in the cell nucleus. Both RNA and also DNA are consisted of of a chain of building blocks referred to as nucleotides, however they have slightly various chemical properties. The type of RNA that includes the indevelopment for making a protein is dubbed messenger RNA (mRNA) because it carries the indevelopment, or message, from the DNA out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm.

Translation, the second action in obtaining from a gene to a protein, takes place in the cytoplasm. The mRNA interacts through a dedicated facility referred to as a ribosome, which "reads" the sequence of mRNA nucleotides. Each sequence of three nucleotides, referred to as a codon, normally codes for one particular amino acid. (Amino acids are the structure blocks of proteins.) A form of RNA called carry RNA (tRNA) assembles the protein, one amino acid at a time. Protein assembly continues till the ribosome encounters a “stop” codon (a sequence of three nucleotides that does not code for an amino acid).

The flow of indevelopment from DNA to RNA to proteins is one of the standard ethics of molecular biology. It is so necessary that it is occasionally called the “central dogma.”

Thunstable the procedures of transcription and also translation, information from genes is offered to make proteins.


The Genetic Science Learning Center at the University of Utah supplies an interactive development to transcription and translation.

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North Dakota State University"s Virtual Cell Animation Collection offers videos that illustrate the processes of transcription and also translation.

The New Genetics, a publication of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, includes discussions of transcription and also translation.


Biointeractive from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute illustrates the steras in the flow of indevelopment from DNA to RNA to protein. This tool likewise provides examples of exactly how modern modern technologies that taracquire the different stages are used to treat hereditary conditions.

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Topics in the How Genes Work chapter

How execute genes straight the manufacturing of proteins?

Other chapters in Help Me Understand Genetics


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