Choose two of the other worlds described in the unit compare and contrast

This section serves as an introductory tutorial on the Compare & Contrast strategy. In this section, our goal is to assist you understand how you currently usage comparative thinking in your classroom and also to define the Strategic Teacher technique to the Compare & Contrast strategy.

You watching: Choose two of the other worlds described in the unit compare and contrast

In this section you will

Reflect on your own experiences via comparative reasoning strategies. Explore the research, ethics, and also classroom phases that make Compare & Contrast such an effective strategy. Examine a selection of student work-related that demonstprices comparative thinking. Experience a version lesboy using the Compare & Contrast strategy.

Let"s Get Started


Comparative thinking is just one of our first and also the majority of organic develops of assumed. When we are babies, among the first differences we should identify is that between mother and other. Without the capability to make comparisons—to collection one object or concept against one more and take note of similarities and differences—much of what we call learning would rather literally be impossible.

You may be wondering why we want to look so carefully at comparative thinking. What provides it so special? The answer lies in the study of renowned educators Robert Marzano, Debra Pickering, and also Jane Pollock (2001). By compiling the accessible study on effective instruction, Marzano, Pickering, and Pollock found that strategies that engage students in comparative reasoning had the greatest impact on student achievement, causing an average percentile get of 45 points (p. 7f). More freshly, Marzano"s research in The Art and Science of Teaching(2007) reevidenced that asking students to identify similarities and also distinctions with comparative evaluation leads to eye-opening gains in student accomplishment.

Although comparative reasoning is a organic operation of our minds and also is important to discovering, the majority of students have actually a difficult time making usage of comparisons in institution. To much better understand how to accomplish success when asking your students to make comparisons, it is crucial to initially understand your own attitude towards comparisons and also just how you use them in your classroom. Keeping that in mind, take a moment to answer the concerns below:

Activity: How Do You Use Comparisons?
1. Why Compare & Contrast? What usage does it have actually in your classroom?

2. In what situations execute you feel comparikid works well?

3. What are the steps you usage in teaching students how to make comparisons?

4. What can your students" job-related be like if they made better comparisons?

What Can Compare & Contrast Do for You and also Your Students?

Compare & Contrast helps teachers achieve 5 unique instructional goals:

GOAL #1:

Strengthen Students" Memories

By focusing student thinking on analyzing pairs of principles, the Compare & Contrast strategy strengthens students" capacity to remember crucial content.

GOAL #2:

Develop Higher-Order Thinking Skills

Compare & Contrast acts as a practical and also easy-to-use introduction to higher-order thinking.

GOAL #3:

Increase Student Comprehension

Compare & Contrast enhances comprehension by highlighting essential details, making abstract concepts even more concrete, and also reducing the confusion between associated principles (think meiosis versus mitosis).

GOAL #4:

Enhance Students" Writing in the Content Areas

The Compare & Contrast strategy strengthens students" creating skills by giving a straightforward structure that helps them organize information and also construct their concepts with greater clarity and also precision.

GOAL #5:

Develop Students" Habits of Mind

In their years of research into the specifying features of intelligent habits and also assumed, Art Costa and also Bena Kallick (2008, 2009) have actually identified 16 “actions of mind.” By nourishing these behavior in our students, we give them the devices they have to use their minds well, therefore enhancing their opportunity for future success. Using Compare & Contrast in the classroom will assist students construct these habits of mind: reasoning flexibly; thinking around thinking (metacognition); striving for accuracy; applying past knowledge to new situations; and also thinking and connecting through clarity and precision.

Answer the question listed below and also then comment on your answer via your neighbor.

Activity: The Many Important Goal
Which of the five objectives of the Compare & Contrast strategy is a lot of crucial to you, and why?

A Potpourri of Classroom Comparisons

The next few peras display the kinds of work-related students create while engaged in Compare & Contrast lessons. Figure 1.1 contains a range of student work-related samples that span a wide range of content locations and grade levels. As you study this work, ask yourself, What skills are students demonstrating in this work?

Figure 1.1. Compare & Contrast Potpourri

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Figure 1.1. (continued)

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Figure 1.1. (continued)

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What abilities were apparent in these student occupational samples? Use the space below to record your thoughts, then comment on your response via a partner.

Activity: Looking at the Skills
Skills:

We all desire our students to create this sort of work—to be able to use comparative thinking individually to breakthrough their very own discovering. To assist us achieve this goal, let"s revolve our attention to the 4 principles and also the four phases of Compare & Contrast. Each principle is tied closely to the difficulties students frequently encounter when they connect in comparative thinking. You"ll notification that the 4 ethics of Compare & Contrast are closely aligned through the 4 classroom phases of Compare & Contrast. Leading your students via these four phases is essential for ensuring your students" efficient use of the Compare & Contrast strategy in the classroom. A classroom poster highlighting these four phases for students is contained in this overview. Figure 1.2 reflects the 4 values and matching 4 phases of Compare & Contrast.

Figure 1.2. The Four Principles and also Phases of Compare & Contrast

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Figure 1.2. (continued)

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Figure 1.2. (continued)

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Now that you have a far better expertise of the 4 phases of the Compare & Contrast strategy, take a 2nd look at the student work-related samples in Figure 1.1. Each of the 4 phases is represented by at leastern one item of student occupational. Can you recognize which work-related samples were emerged in the time of which classroom phase?

The Strategy in Action

Now let"s experience a lesboy using the Compare & Contrast strategy. Joanne Glass, a high institution background teacher, wants her students to understand also just how situations of time and place influence perspective. With this leskid, Joanne is looking to change her students" attention from macrohistory to microbackground. Many students are acquainted through the major events, dates, and also human being that comprise macrobackground, but students are often not aware of the knowledge that have the right to be acquired from examining the microbackground of social custom-mades, individual writings, and also everyday lives of prevalent human being. To this finish, Joanne has actually designed a lesson utilizing Compare & Contrast based on 2 major documents, one from a 17th century Puritan household and one about a 19th century commercial family members. Joanne has actually made sure that the tasks and also assessments in the leschild call for students to practice the abilities assessed by her state"s standardized tests, consisting of The capacity to current clear analyses of concerns, concepts, messages, and experiences; The capacity to assistance positions with well-occurred arguments; The ability to develop disagreements with reliable use of details and evidence; and also The ability to describe the prestige of analyzing narratives and also records from various times and places to understand also historic events.

The Model Lesson: Different Times, Different Households

As you review this leschild, save in mind the ethics of Compare & Contrast, the duty of the student, the role of the teacher, and also the goals of the strategy. We likewise encourage you to be the student by completing the student tasks throughout the leschild.

The Hook and Bridge of the Lesson

The “hook and also bridge” is meant to hook students right into the lesboy by producing bridges between students" prior knowledge or individual experiences and the content of the lesboy. It additionally concentrates students" attention in preparation for the leschild ahead.

Joanne starts her lesboy by saying, “Sheight and think about some households that you understand. Have you ever before noticed exactly how some families are various from your own? Take a minute and jot dvery own some ways in which family members are comparable and various from one an additional.”

Activity: Comparing Households
How are family members equivalent and also different?

The Content: Two Readings, Two Households

Joanne continues, “In this lesson, we are going to go earlier right into the 17th and also 19th centuries, wbelow you will certainly have actually the chance to visit 2 dwellings. The initially passage you will check out is taken from a 17th century father"s diary, and also the second passage comes from a 1nine century song. As you visit these dwellings, pay close attention to the adhering to criteria: the father"s role, the daughter"s function, the nature of the world, and the nature of the residence.”

Two Imeras of Fatherhood
A 17th Century Father Talks to His Daughter

Recognizing that I, like all guys, will someday perish, I invited my daughter, little Katy, into my research. I told my son that I am to die shortly, and also she need to, as soon as I am dead, remember every little thing I said unto her. I collection before her the sinful and also woeful problem of her nature, and I charged her to pray in trick places eexceptionally day without ceasing that God for the sake of Jesus Christ would certainly provide her a new heart. I wished her to live happily under God and also abide by the regulations governing her presence here. I provided her to understand also that when I am taken from her she should look to accomplish with more humbling afflictions than she does currently she has a mindful and also tender father to provide for her.

See more: Homework 16

“Father Is Coming” (1ninth Century Song)The clock is on the stroke of six;The father"s job-related is done;Sweep up the hearth and mfinish the fire,And put the kettle on.The wild night wind is blowing cold,"Tis dreary crossing o"er the wold.He is crossing o"er the wold apace,He is more powerful than the storm;He does not feel the cold, not he,His heart it is so warm;For father"s heart is stout and trueAs ever huguy bosom knew. . . .Nay, carry out not close the shutters, child;For along the laneThe little window looks, and heCan watch it shining plain;I"ve heard him say he loves to markThe cheerful firelight via the dark. . . .Hark! hark! I hear his footmeasures currently,He"s with the garden gate;Run, little Bess, and open up the door,And carry out not let him wait;Shout, baby, shout! and also clap thy hands,For father on the thresorganize stands.

You"ll alert that even at this beforehand stage of the lesboy, students are involved in addressing state requirements by analyzing primary records from different time periods.

Phase One: Description

Now Joanne asks students to usage the criteria noted in the summary organizer (see Figure 1.3) to explain each household.

Figure 1.3. Activity: Description Organizer

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You"ll notice that we have actually included a section to the best for you to document your own thoughts on the leschild. This is part of a process we contact “Do, Look, Find Out.” Too often, we go with the motions of finding out a brand-new process or concept without reflecting on our own thinking. As you “do” the leschild, “look” in on your own assumed process to view what you can “learn” from your very own experiences.

Thinking About Phase One: Thounstable descriptions framed by clear criteria result in deeper and also richer comparisons. The even more students are motivated to think around details and specifics in their summary, the less complicated and even more advanced their comparisons will certainly be. Take a moment to look earlier at the readings with the criteria from Figure 1.3 in mind. How perform the criteria influence your thinking?

Note that criteria are not perfectly synonymous through important characteristics. Many comparikid tactics ask students to emphasis their attention on critical qualities, which are the defining features of the items under investigation. Critical characteristics are always an excellent beginning point for helping students to focus their attention on the crucial indevelopment, yet sometimes we desire students to go past sindicate describing the items by these characteristics. For instance, if students are describing renewable energy and also nonrenewable power, we might desire students to take into consideration not just the critical attributes (e.g., the sources of the forms of power, just how each form is used) but likewise the components that put renewable and nonrenewable energy into a larger context (e.g., disagreements for and against each type of energy).

Phase Two: Comparison

Joanne now moves her students into the compariboy phase by having them work-related with partners to recognize similarities and distinctions in between the two families and also then to document those similarities and also differences utilizing the Top Hat Organizer (view Figure 1.4).

Figure 1.4. Activity: Top Hat Organizer

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Thinking About Phase Two: Notice exactly how much much easier it wregarding conduct a compariboy having actually currently completed detailed descriptions of the readings. These first two phases encourage students to usage details and evidence from the readings to assistance their comparisons, and also the Top Hat Organizer helps students offer their thoughts a shape.

Phase Three: Conclusion

For this phase, Joanne asks her students to talk about what they have learned as an outcome of their comparichild and to form some conclusions. She offers the concerns in Figure 1.5 to overview the discussion.

Figure 1.5. Activity: Drawing Conclusions

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Thinking About Phase Three: Guided by concerns, students are forced to distill the evidence they have actually gathered from the passages and also analyze the 2 readings in better depth. By asking students to take a place and attract conclusions around the content, we enhance their retention and knowledge.

Phase Four: Application

Joanne introduces her application task by saying, “You have checked out exactly how certain time durations influence the concept of household and also the functions of fathers and daughters. Now you will certainly be asked to synthesize what you have learned in this leskid in a creative job. Think around today"s society. How do our time period and culture affect the role that fathers play in our families?” Joanne then introduces and also defines the following synthesis task.

Activity: Want Ad
Pick 2 global traits for appropriate fathers, whether they come from the 17th, the 1nine, or the 21st century. Then pick 2 even more traits that you think are unique to modern-day fathers. Use the four traits you select to develop a want ad for an ideal 21st century father.

Thinking About Phase Four: Remember the principle of “putting finding out to work”? Creating a real-human being job and asking students to stretch their thinking past the original context boosts move and helps students uncover deeper definition in the content.

Figure 1.6 depicts just how one student team completed the four phases of the lesboy. How does their work-related compare via yours?

Figure 1.6. Student Work from the Lesson

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Figure 1.6. (continued) Not easily accessible for digital circulation.

See more: What Is The Most Important Factor In Improving Reading Skills? ?

Source:The Strategic Teacher: Selecting the Right Research-Based Strategy for Eexceptionally Lesson

ThoughtWork

Before the Next Section

Take a moment to reflect on what you extended in this section by answering the inquiries below.

Activity: Reflecting on Section 1
1. How did the strategy help Joanne to attain her goals?

2. How did the phases of the strategy support the principles of the strategy?

3. How is the Compare & Contrast strategy comparable to what you currently do through your students once you desire them to connect in comparison? How is it different?

In the next section, you will be planning your own Compare & Contrast lesboy. To prepare, you need to carry out the complying with things prior to you relocate on: Keep an eye out for students who usage comparative reasoning in your classroom. What measures do you notification them taking? How comfortable are they via comparison? As you teach over the coming weeks, store track of those times once you could have supplied Compare & Contrast. Take note of these instances, and be ready to share them as you proceed through the complying with sections. Compile all the materials you"ll need to setup a Compare & Contrast leskid (e.g., content, criteria to cover) and also lug them to the following meeting with your finding out club.