According to kelly, we make choices in life in order to

The repertory grid is a means of moving out an interwatch in a very structured manner, using the interviewee"s own language and setting out their responses in the create of a grid.

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The repertory grid – an overview

A substantial advantage of the repertory grid strategy is that it enables interviewees to articulate their endure in the method they see the people, according to their own personal constructs. In so doing, it prevents interviewer prejudice (the interviewer permitting their inquiries to be increated by their own values, also subconsciously). Because it likewise offers distinctions and also similarities with various other examples, it deserve to be much easier to tease out the interviewee"s views than talking in abstract terms. It have the right to likewise be good for teasing out different dimensions of a question.

For instance, mean a student is asked about their experience of lectures. The interviewer can ask, "What makes a good lecturer?". If the student struggcaused respond, the interviewer can point out a couple of prompts, possibly based upon his or her conception of what qualities an excellent lecturer need to possess. With the repertory grid strategy, the student and the interviewer might agree on a variety of specific lecturers and then use a method of comparikid and comparison as a method of getting the student to talk.

The repertory grid approach, therefore, can be a well-off resource of qualitative information and enable civilization to expush points in their very own terms or jargon. Because it additionally provides rating scales, it can likewise be analysed statistically, therefore it combines both qualitative and also quantitative methodology. In epistemological terms it represents a subjective see of knowledge, in which interpretation is to some level an individual matter.

Kelly"s individual construct theory

The repertory grid approach was developed by the clinical psychologist George Kelly, who additionally developed individual construct concept (PCT). According to PCT, world build their very own rules, or constructs, for interpreting events, situations and also people. Such constructs are not abstractions, but are regularly arisen on the basis of previous suffer.

For example, in a period of the globalisation of greater education, many type of students study awide. Students from some components of the civilization have the right to discover the Western method of education, which regularly requires interactive lectures and lecturers getting students to solve difficulties etc., odd bereason they expect lecturers just to provide them the information. This is not bereason anyone has actually sassist to them, "the teacher will certainly tell you every little thing you need to learn", yet rather that that is their suffer and so that is the construct which forms their check out of education.

In their 2004 post, "A constructivist design for evaluating postgraduate supervision: a situation study", publiburned in Quality Assurance in Education, Vol. 12 No. 2, pp. 82-93, Zuber-Skerritt and also Roche describe personal construct theory thus:

"Kelly"s personal construct concept gave the theoretical structure and overarching methodology for our research. According to the concept, world develop their own tentative models or individual theories about the people in order to understand and also negotiate their atmospheres in the functions of "personal scientists" (Kelly, 1955; 1963). Like clinical theories, individual theories help human being to anticipate future occasions and overview behaviour and perspectives. Theories are tested versus experiences and discarded if they fail to administer meaningful interpretations of the civilization. Personal construct concept assumes that civilization anticipate and explain events in their people through organisation of perceptions, called "bi-polar constructs". People usage these bi-polar constructs to test hypotheses, which are the basis of individual theories. Constructs are continually revised, when experience says the require for further thought. Kelly"s standard presumption of "male the scientist" , thus recognises a dynamic and also reflective duty for guys, presumably additionally for womales, as constructors of knowledge. We are utilizing the term "personal scientist" (Shaw, 1980).

Kelly emerged the repertory grid method based upon his concept to permit structured conversations between researcher and also participant and explorations of the individual"s civilization of meaning. Unprefer typical viewpoints to research study, such as questionnaires and also interviews, the repertory grid have the right to elicit people"s constructs without affecting them by the researcher"s preconceived inquiries. In this way the repertory grid is both a suitable tool to explore the uniqueness of the supervision partnership, and a valuable benchnoting tool, against which readjust can be planned and also assessed."

The main components of a repertory grid

The primary components of the repertory grid are:

The topic – what the interview is about.Elements – these are examples that illustrate the topic. They can be people, objects, experiences, occasions, according to the topic. The elements can either be preferred by the interviewee, or they have the right to be preselected. In the example around students" views of lecturers offered over, the topic would be "What renders a great lecturer?" and the facets would be specific lecturers recognized to the interviewee. If a number of students were being interperceived, with different backgrounds, the lecturers/aspects would certainly not necessarily be the very same. To offer another instance, imagine an exercise designed to elicit views on wine. The topic would certainly be, say, Italian wine, and also the aspects various wines via the interviewee being asked to taste, and also compare them!Constructs – the most essential component of the repertory grid. This is wright here the aspects are compared through one one more to develop a series of statements which describe what the interviewee thinks about the topic. These statements will certainly develop the eventual unit of analysis. They will be bipolar – in other words, eextremely statement will certainly be presented as oppowebsite ends of a pole. The students being interregarded around lecturers can say that Lecturer A, as opposed to Lecturers B and C, describes points plainly whereas B and C are hard to follow. So, one set of constructs would be "explains points clearly" as opposed to "difficult to follow". The wine interviewees meanwhile might say that Wine A was sweeter than Wines B and C. So, constructs might be "sweet" – "dry", "fruity" – "grassy", "heady" – "light", and so on.Ratings – once the primary constructs and also facets are in area, they are gotten in on a grid through the facets on peak and also the constructs dvery own the side. The interviewee then rates each aspect against each construct according to a rating range, normally of 1-5.

Uses of repertory grid

Due to the fact that of its capacity to capture excellent information, the repertory grid is offered in a vast array of contexts. Below is a non-exhaustive list:

humale resources (for example performance appraisals, job analysis, training needs analysis, staff and organisational development),psychology (for example, mental tests or counoffering form interviews),brand also analysis and consumer behaviour,team breakthrough and organisational researches,indevelopment retrieval researches and devices evaluation, for example mental modelling.

It is specifically excellent in situations wright here it is necessary to understand also how civilization think, for teasing out understanding which is implicit quite than explicit, and also for establishing mental maps. It have the right to be provided by both practitioners and also researchers.

Advantages and also drawbacks of repertory grid

Regardless of the adaptability of the method it does have actually drawbacks:

It is time-consuming; each interview will take as much as an hour.It deserve to appear quite synthetic, and senior supervisors in particular may be sceptical about its worth, and also hence quite unwilling to provide time to it.Tbelow are many variations of design and also it can be difficult to select the best one.The analysis procedure can "overwhelm through numbers" and also one deserve to end up being fascinated by the procedure of computer system evaluation and also what it deserve to "discover" – at the price of the "bigger picture".

These objections notwithstanding, the strategy is typically offered in all sorts of means and also we shall go on to discover this in even more information.

Devi Jankowicz has created a lot around repertory grid method and in his 2001 post co-composed with Penny Prick, "A social constructionist account of police culture and also its affect on the representation and also development of female officers: A repertory grid evaluation in a UK police force", publimelted in Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, Vol. 24 No. 2, pp. 181-199, he renders the adhering to observation:

"Tright here are a number of benefits to making use of repertory grid. First, it is a technique that prevents the use of a priori categories, but considering that study participants are asked to construe the very same phenomena (i.e. efficient performance) it is nevertheless methodical sufficient to allow the identification of mutual cognitions. 2nd, the strategy permits participants to articulate their experiences in their very own words, yet, because of its organized nature, allows the researcher to probe participants’ responses such that they are rendered intelligible. Finally, the data obtained from repertory grids is both well-off enough to allow a thostormy examicountry of the content of each individual’s construct device, yet sufficiently parsimonious to enable rigorous content analysis that have the right to be checked for reliability. Therefore we were able to accomplish the methodological needs we have outlined."

Eliciting and also creating a repertory grid

One function of the repertory grid is bereason a lot is done in conjunction through the interviewee, the design of the actual grid will certainly be a mutual process.

However, you should take into consideration the overall function of the grid, in the light of your study design:

What is your research question?How significant will certainly your sample be? (Keep in mind that many kind of researchers usage a little sample via this approach, as it is sensibly time-consuming to bring out.)What and how will you analyse?

All these and also various other inquiries will must be considered closely prior to you begin interviewing. In specific if you are utilizing the grid for a variety of interviews (which will be most of the moment, a sample of one generally being taken into consideration a little bit small!) you will certainly must encertain a particular degree of commonality in the design.

Similar to various other techniques, you execute not usage the approach in isolation and it is common to use it along with various other techniques.


Before each repertory grid intersee it will certainly be vital to ensure the following:

Availcapacity of a quiet room with phones off the hook, so that the intersee deserve to take place in a peaceful, uninterrupted environment.Availcapacity of a pre-prepared blank grid sheet with the topic in the left-hand also edge, area for the aspects in the optimal row and also the constructs alengthy the left-hand and also right-hand side.Explaining to the perkid came to the reason for the interwatch and also ensuring that they understand the procedure.Commitment about confidentiality.

All interviewing calls for great social abilities and the ability to put the interviewee at ease, and repertory grid is no exception.

Agreeing the topic

The level to which the topic is up for negotiation counts on the instance, yet in most study situations it would certainly be liked by the researcher. It is essential that the topic is sufficiently specific, for example, not simply management however a certain aspect, e.g. management and also integrity. This will be assisted by having a clear research study question, as in the following examples.

In their 2007 short article, "Articulating appraisal system effectiveness based upon managerial cognitions", Wappropriate and Cheung (Personnel Review, Vol. 36 No. 2, pp. 206-230) research appraisal cognition making use of the adhering to research study concerns (RQs):

RQ1. How execute practising supervisors watch, interpret and make sense of their performance administration experiences? RQ2. In what means can these managerial cognitions of appraisal device endure bring about a deeper knowledge of the way forward in developing even more efficient performance management systems?

In "Desticountry brand images: a business tourism perspective", Hankinchild, G. (2005), Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 19 No. 1, pp. 24-32, the researcher wanted to discover the answer to three research study questions connected through destinations for service tourism. The first RQ looked at the key brand picture qualities provided by events supervisors to characteclimb desticountries, and a repertory grid was offered for this function.

Eliciting the elements

The elements preferred must:

cover the topic of investigation evenly, i.e. be representative,be clear, and homogenous – i.e. execute not mix people and also objects,be free from worth judgements,be acquainted to the interviewee,be expressed as sindicate as possible – nouns are most basic, verbs should be energetic gerunds, e.g. "deciding" fairly than "making decisions",together, form a set – for instance, avoid mixing abstract and concrete nouns, nouns and verbs, etc.,be mutually exclusive and also not subsets of one an additional, for instance you could not have actually both "cat" and "siamese".

Elements may be either offered or elicited in the time of the intersee. In the previous section the facets in the wine example would certainly be gave, and also those for the lecturers instance elicited. A prevalent form of aspect is the personal element, i.e. particular civilization well-known to the interviewee. Elements are elicited by providing a general category, and then asking the interviewee to provide certain examples.

In the instance of provided elements, these may be deduced by looking at the literature, or by some prior research, maybe through exploratory interviews, or some piloting of the strategy.

In "Articulating appraisal device effectiveness based upon managerial cognitions", Wbest and also Cheung came up through nine appraisal systems activities by analysis the literary works and also consulting supervisors.

In "Using the repertory grid and also laddering approach to recognize the user"s evaluative design of search engines", Journal of Documentation, Vol. 63 No. 2, pp. 259-280, Johnboy and Crudge (2007) offered search engines as constructs and dyadic elicitation (comparing 2 search engines) to obtain constructs.

In "Facilities monitoring in medium-sized UK hotels", International Journal of Conmomentary Hospitality Management, Vol. 14 No. 2, pp. 72-80, Jones (2002) provided a number of aspects of infrastructure monitoring e.g. reception work; general cleaning; catering, and so on.

In Hankinson"s 2005 short article, "Desticountry brand also images: a service tourism perspective", Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 19 No. 1, pp. 24-32, the researcher supplied 15 destinations as elements, put into 6 different categories, displayed below:

Destinations supplied as elements in the repertory gridsDesticountry characteristicsDestination
CommercialManchester, Leeds, Bristol
PortsSouthampton, Portsmouth, Liverpool
Seaside resortsLlandudno, Brighton, Eastbourne
New townsWarrington, Telford
HistoricBath, Edinburgh, York
Small, market townsGuildford

Once the facets are establiburned, they should be set out in some method that allows simple comparison. It is prevalent to set each aspect dvery own on a card, although the intercheck out have the right to likewise be done by computer. There have to be at least ten elements in order to yield a adequate number of alternatives.

Sometimes, an "ideal" aspect is presented as a method of giving further points of comparichild.

Johnkid and Crudge introduced a perfect search engine in the over quoted study.

Eliciting constructs

Constructs are the information, the unit of evaluation, which outcome from the intersee and are mostly elicited from the interviewee.

The method offered to elicit is to compare and also comparison the elements in sets of 3, well-known as triads (or periodically as 2 – dyads). Therefore the interviewee is presented 3 elements and then asked to comment on similarities and also differences: "In what means are any kind of 2 of these comparable, however different from the 3rd, in regards to ?". The very same procedure is then followed through the remaining combicountries of aspects. Each triad need to adjust at leastern two of the elements.

The point about making use of comparisons is to allow opinions and also concepts which are frequently simply "listed below the surface" to become more explicit – in other words, to dig out and also make concrete tacit expertise.

This is the account that Wideal and also Cheung offer of how they brought out their interviews:

"Given these representative appraisal device elements, managers were shown each of the nine appraisal tasks in groups of threes called a "Triad" and also asked the Kellyian question: "In what means are any type of two of these equivalent, however various from the 3rd, in regards to how well or just how not well they are done in your organization?"

Using E1, E2 and also E3 as an instance (E1: Attending appraisal training/E2: Attfinishing the annual interview/E3: Reading appraisal guidelines and notes) – a typical response is generally in the create of a construct such as, E1 and also E2 are similar bereason "I can contribute" and also that is why it is done well; whereas E3 is various and not well done because "I do not acquire a chance to have actually my input". (Hence: I have the right to add –- I do not get a possibility to have my input). According to Kelly (1955), a construct is always bi-polar in nature and shows a measurement from which an individual formulates perceptions to make sense of the human being. Each appraisal system facet was triadically compared twice, making use of different combicountries to elicit as many kind of personal constructs as possible".

In "Improving team performance using repertory grids", Team Performance Management, Vol. 11 Nos. 5/6, pp. 179-187, Boyle (2005) supplied a repertory grid technique to research study soft skills problems in team performance for programmers. The elements were programmers themselves and also the comparikid process is described as follows:

"Of the 3 facets schosen, two elements are compared on some crucial similarity and also the remaining element is compared on some difference between itself and also the other 2 facets. The comparichild should be based upon a question that the researcher asks, such as "In what way are 2 of these world comparable to each various other and different from the third?". The factor for pairing the elements in the triad is then proclaimed. These elements have to encourage the respondent to think in contrasts such as "Liked – Disliked", and "Personal hero – Villain"" (Fournier, V. (1996), "Cognitive maps in the analysis of individual change throughout work-related duty transition", British Journal of Management, Vol. 7, pp. 87-105).

The similarities and differences referred to over form the constructs, and also they are set out in the left and ideal hand also columns of the grid (similarities on the left and also distinctions on the right).

Qualities of a great construct are well summed up by Jankowicz (2004) as:

offering clear contrastsappropriately detailedrelevant to the topic.

If the constructs are not sufficiently clear, if they contain cliches or undescribed jargon, then the interviewer needs to probe sensitively to deepen their knowledge and arrive at a satismanufacturing facility construct. One method that can be provided is "laddering down"; this involves a probing question such as "What kind of point do you have actually in mind...?", "Can you provide me an example?", asking them to define as if to a Martian, what such a perchild does, and so on.

Johnchild and also Crudge (2007) describe the laddering process, as well as Kelly"s belief that some constructs are core to a person"s idea device, as follows:

"Kelly believed that construct devices are hierarchically organised and also interconnected by cause and also result, through some constructs being central to the beliefs of an individual. These core principles can be visualised as developing the topthe majority of points of a pyramid, with the reduced positions filled by the device of interconnected constructs. Throughout laddering, the interviewer starts at any kind of suggest within this system, termed the "seed item", and making use of a collection of probing inquiries the participant is guided up, down and across the (hierarchical) construct system (Rugg et al., 1999). This strategy is essentially a combination of Hinkle"s (1965) laddering technique used to relocate upwards within the pecking order, with Landfield"s (1971) pyramid approach supplied to relocate downwards in the power structure. It has now become standard for the term "laddering" to describe the linked method" (Johnson and also Crudge, "Using the repertory grid and also laddering method to identify the user"s evaluative model of search engines", Journal of Documentation, Vol. 63 No. 2, pp. 259-280).

Johnchild and also Crudge likewise define how they offered a technique of laddering up and down, taking the probe "why is that necessary to you?" to relocate the participants better up their pyramids, and also "just how is it different?" to relocate lower. An example of a probe statement is displayed below:


Rating systems

The rating range requirements to be made a decision in advance; a 5-point range is prevalent. It is inadvisable to go beyond 7 points as the distinctions would certainly be as well fine. Kelly himself offered a 2-allude range, which was simply the construct and its opposite greatly in order to focus on interpretation fairly than numbers.

Wideal and also Cheung define their rating mechanism as follows:

"Once the constructs were elicited, the manager was then asked to price each of the nine appraisal activities making use of a 5-point range based upon their own produced bi-polar constructs (supplied as semantic differentials); A rating of "1" stood for facets that were closest to the left-hand also side of the bi-polar construct elicited; and a rating of "5" stood for facets that were best explained by the bi-polar construct pole on the right of the grid. After every one of the aspects were rated, the respondents were asked to pick the side of the bi-polar constructs that, in their see, represents an essential attribute of an efficient appraisal system ... Upon the completion of this exercise, all grid respondents" constructs and also ratings were aggregated (Bougon, 1992) to geneprice one accumulation repertory grid ... The data was then inputted into the RepGrid programme to generate a principal component analysis, collective cognitive maps, and cluster evaluation for discussion".

See more: What Is Not A Goal Of A Multimedia Presentation? ? Multimedia Presentation Ideas

Analysing a repertory grid

The power and attraction of the repertory grid strategy is that it deserve to be analysed in so many kind of different means. Seliminated interviewing have the right to yield a riches of qualitative information which reveals the interviewee"s thoughts and also ideas. For those that prefer the better certainty of numbers, the ratings will certainly offer plenty of opportunity for statistical analysis.

Any evaluation is a matter of going from first impressions dvery own to ever before deeper levels. The first stage must therefore be to acquire an overall impression, via a descriptive evaluation. After that, the fun via the numbers can start. However, for many research study jobs, a variety of repertory grid interviews will be carried out, so it is essential to have actually a strategy for analysing multiple grids. We shall consider these topics subsequently.

For indevelopment on software packages, please check out area 4 – Some examples, and also additionally resources of indevelopment.

Basic descriptions

Having acquired a grid, make some quick notes on basic monitorings you made on the intersee – e.g. just how did it go?/did the subject uncover it simple to talk? – and on the actual grid. Here are a few methods for all at once observation:

Process analysis: what was actually going on in the time of the intercheck out, as opposed to the constructs captured on the grid? How did the interviewee react to the topic? The elements? If the last were elicited, what deserve to you tell from the interviewee"s choice? What were the constructs like? How simple was the rating process?Eyeround analysis: this is where you turn from the procedure to looking at the grid itself, in order to develop an in its entirety impression. What strikes you around the elements and also constructs? Is tbelow anything noticeable through the ratings?Construct characterisation: do a quick all at once summary of the constructs. How many kind of are what is termed core, i.e. of good meaning to the interviewee, as opposed to being of peripheral or marginal significance? Is there any particular type of construct that dominates, any layout running through? How are the constructs related?

Remember: first impressions count!

Analysing relationships within a solitary grid

Some relationships in between elements or constructs might be apparent at a glance, others you may must dig a tiny deeper for.

Comparing relationships between constructs and also elements

If you perform not have access to a statistical software package, or if you want to reflect on these relationships via your interviewee, you can perform a low level number crunching exercise looking at relationships in between aspects and also constructs. This is just a issue of:

For elements, summing the difference in between each element pair throughout all the constructs, and comparing the sums to view wright here tbelow is the greatest similarity or difference.For constructs, conducting a similar exercise for a comparable impact throughout all construct pairs across all aspects.Cluster analysis

This approach is one which you require a software package for, and also it helps you to highlight the relationships in a grid and also view them in diagrammatic develop. It works out the similarity scores as described over, and then reorders the columns and also rows so that the ones that are a lot of comparable are closest together. The picture is then shown in the develop of a dendrogram, which portrays the relationships in the create of branches on a tree. You will certainly then be able to view close similarities between various constructs and also elements from wright here "clusters" of branches take place.

Principle component analysis

This is an additional method requiring a software package, which also mirrors in diagrammatic form the similarities and also differences in between elements and also constructs. It works by isolating the components wbelow tright here is the biggest variant, and plotting them on a graph with the first component as the horizontal line (x-axis) and also the second component as the vertical line (y-axis). The constructs and also aspects are then plotted versus the two component lines, or x-axis and also y-axis, and their relative distance versus the latter mirrors the extent to which the components represent them.

In "Improving team performance making use of repertory grids", Boyle provides a valuable summary of the distinctions in between these two methods.

Analysing multiple grids

The nature of study being as it is, it is highly most likely that you will be making use of not one, but a number of repertory grid interviews. In order to carry out this, it is crucial that you architecture the research so that the interviews have actually steady components: either the facets or the constructs need to be the exact same. As the constructs are more generally elicited, this will more frequently be the facets.

In "Articulating appraisal mechanism effectiveness based upon managerial cognitions", Wappropriate and Cheung comment on the importance of keeping either the aspects or the constructs constant in instances where you are trying to acquire comparisons, and describe the literature.

If tbelow is no constant component, it is still possible to obtain coherent comparison offering the number of constructs is constant over the different interviews. The reason for this is to ensure that tbelow is no variation in the amount of distinctions.

Content analysis

This is a prevalent strategy for analysing qualitative information, using words rather than numbers, and also has actually been spanned somewhere else on this site. (See "How to... analyse qualitative data".

One of the main decisions to make through content analysis is what is the unit of analysis; through repertory grid approach, it is constantly the construct. The procedure is then much the same as with any content analysis:

Determine the categories to be used. These might be drawn from the literary works, or they may be compiled on the hoof, from the constructs themselves, by comparing these and placing each new design template into a brand-new category.Tabulate the categories and the constructs.Summaclimb the table: reflect on the meaning of the categories, uncover examples of each, and also reflect on the frequency via which they happen.

If part of the research study is to consider the difference in between specific sub-teams, for instance according to sex, then it"s vital when collecting the data to have some kind of code to indicate these sub-teams, so that as soon as you are carrying out the evaluation you deserve to create various columns to present them.

It is likewise crucial to develop reliability: one means of doing this is by getting someone else to replicate your analysis and also watch if you come up through the same categories. Another means is to have 2 researchers working individually.

The trouble via the approach outlined over is that it just supplies verbal components, i.e. the constructs and also the elements, whilst ignoring ratings. If you desire also to be able to use the ratings, follow the strategy said by Peter Honey in "The repertory grid in action", Industrial and also Commercial Training, 1979, Vol. 11 Nos. 9-11, pp. 452-459. Part of his strategy is to ascribe an as a whole summary construct for each interviewee.

In the 2004 write-up, "Leading through integrity: a qualitative research study", Journal of Health Organization and also Management, Vol. 18 No. 6, pp. 415-434, Storr describes just how in a research of the relationship in between leadership and integrity, she used the repertory grid technique to managers in the UK"s National Health Service. She interviewed managers from three levels – executive and non-executive, senior manager and supervisor. In analysing her findings she was able to draw conclusions which concerned the monitoring level.

In "Improving team performance using repertory grids", Boyle offers a selection of methods to analyse the constructs derived from the intercheck out.

In Hankinkid (2005), "Destination brand also images: a organization tourism perspective", Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 19 No. 1, pp. 24-32, the constructs are collection out in clusters with frequencies.

Some examples, and further sources of information

This area includes recommendation to some Emerald posts which contain valuable descriptions of the repertory grid method. The articles may have actually already been used as illustrations in the rest of this guide, but are consisted of here as a method of helping the reader build up a body of literature on the topic.

Emerald articles

The complying with is a list of some Emerald articles:

About the strategy itself

Boyle, T.A. (2005), "Improving team performance making use of repertory grids", Team Performance Management, Vol. 11 Nos. 5/6, pp. 179-187.Describes use of the technique to look at team performance, and also additionally consists of some useful general discussion of the methodology.

Jankowicz, D. (2001), "Why does subjectivity make us nervous?: Making the tacit explicit", Journal of Pundit Capital, Vol. 2 No. 1, pp. 61-73.This post explores usage of the method, and what provides it efficient.

Marsden, D. and also Littler, D. (2000), "Repertory grid approach – An interpretive research study framework", European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 34 No. 7, pp. 816-834.This is a vital post which looks at the usage of the technique within the framework of qualitative research study.

Easterby-Smith, M., Thorpe, R. and also Holguy, D. (1996), "Using repertory grids in management", Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 20 No. 2, pp. 3-30.Easterby-Smith has created broadly about the method and also this short article, although a small old, is an excellent advent and also looks at some of the monitoring applications.

Technique applicationsLeadership studies:

Senior, B. (1996), "Team performance: making use of repertory grid technique to gain a check out from the inside", Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 11 No. 3, pp. 2-32.Looks at the approach as applied to team performance.

Storr, L. (2004), "Leading through integrity: a qualitative research study", Journal of Health Organization and Management, Vol. 18 No. 6, pp. 415-434.Uses repertory grid to look at the concept of integrity in management.

HR and organizational issues:

Penis, P. and Jankowicz, P. (2001), "A social constructionist account of police culture and its affect on the representation and progression of female officers: A repertory grid analysis in a UK police force", Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, Vol. 24 No. 2, pp. 181-199.

Harris, H. (2001), "Rebrowsing discrimination in selection for international administration assignments: the function of repertory grid technique", Woguys in Management Review, Vol. 16 No. 3, pp. 11-126.

Wappropriate, R.P. and Cheung, F.K. (2007), "Articulating appraisal system performance based upon managerial cognitions", Personnel Review, Vol. 36 No. 2, pp. 206-230.

Zuber-Skerritt, O. and Roche, V. (2004), "A constructivist version for evaluating postgraduate supervision: a case study", Quality Assurance in Education, Vol. 12 No. 2, pp. 82-93.A great example of a greater education application.

Marketing, consumer research studies, branding:

Caldwell, N. and also Coshall, J. (2002), "Measuring brand associations for museums and galleries making use of repertory grid analysis", Management Decision, Vol. 40 No. 4, pp. 383-392.

Hankinchild, G. (2005), "Desticountry brand images: a organization tourism perspective", Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 19 No. 1, pp. 24-32.

Rocchi, B. and Stefani, G. (2006), "Consumers’ perception of wine packaging: a case study", International Journal of Wine Marketing, Vol. 18 No. 1, pp. 33-4.


Lemke, F. (2003), "Investigating the meaning of supplier-manufacturer partnerships: An exploratory study", Internationwide Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, Vol. 33 No. 1, pp. 12-35.

Facilities management:

Jones, C. (2002), "Facilities administration in medium-sized UK hotels", International Journal of Conshort-lived Hospitality Management, Vol. 14 No. 2, pp. 72-8.

Indevelopment systems:

Crudge, S.E. and also Johnboy, F.C. (2007), "Using the repertory grid and laddering approach to identify the user"s evaluative model of search engines", Journal of Documentation, Vol. 63 No. 2, pp. 259-280.


A specifically beneficial book, and one that is both straightforward and fun to review, is:

Jankowicz, D. (2004), The Easy Guide to Repertory Grids, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK.

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Useful sites for repertory grid software program have the right to be uncovered at:

WebGrid III – – a website that looks at computer applications of personal construct theory.